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Prairie precision

More than 200 years ago, when Lewis and Clark were making their historic 8,000-mile trek that began in Missouri, American bison herds still grazed the state’s peaceful prairies. William Clark’s journal entries from June 1804 reference the explorers’ first “buffalow” sightings near Boonville and present-day Kansas City.

In 1818, explorer Henry Rowe Schoolcraft also encountered bison during his notable expedition through the Missouri Ozarks. In his journal, which became the first published account of the region, Schoolcraft marveled at “droves of bison” grazing in the tall-grass prairie that once covered about a third of the state.

Free-roaming bison would soon be a rarity. Even though these majestic bovine dominated the Great Plains landscape until the mid-1800s, with an estimated population of 60 million at its peak, only around 1,000 were left by 1890. Overhunting, habitat destruction and introduction of diseases from domestic cattle were the main culprits of the almost disastrous decline.

Thanks to private, federal and public conservation efforts over the past 100 years, however, bison have come back from the brink of extinction. The population has grown to some 360,000 in North America today, many of them thriving in relatively natural conditions in public parks, preserves and Native American lands. Around 184,000 or so reside on private ranches and farms, according to the 2017 USDA census.

Back Forty Bison in southwest Missouri is among them. John and Rebecca (Becky) Roller have raised American bison since 2012, beginning with 13 they purchased as an established herd from another producer. Today, their herd numbers around 100, counting cows, calves and four herd bulls, spread across four farms in the Rollers’ native Dade County.

“We had no previous livestock experience at all,” Becky said. “The bad part about that is you have a lot to learn. The good part is you don’t have a lot to unlearn. The way you manage cattle doesn’t always transfer to bison.”

Indeed, the enterprise may seem a bit unlikely for the Rollers, who had a diverse background before bison. They both worked in education for several years and then started and sold their own computer software firm. Becky also holds a doctorate in clinical psychology. Though mostly retired these days, they still offer consulting services “once in a while,” John said. 

Their bison business was born after a trip to Yellowstone National Park, where about 4,000 head roam freely. John and Becky had a chance to see bison up close and marveled at the magnificence of what was designated America’s national mammal in 2016.“

It wasn’t long after our trip that we discovered bison meat had an extremely healthy profile,” Becky said. “We had been dieting, trying eat better as we were getting older and fatter, but were just burned out on turkey, fish and chicken. We were thrilled to have red meat again. So one day after church, I turned around to some friends of ours and suggested we raise bison together. We started out in partnership with them, although we have separate operations now.”

The Rollers didn’t jump into bison production without doing their homework. Becky said they spent about a year going to producer meetings, visiting farms in Missouri and other states and reading everything they could find about bison. They found the industry very welcoming and supportive.

“It’s a niche business,” Becky said. “I want to stress that. It’s never going to be competitive with cattle. It’s not for someone who’s in it for the short haul or trying to make a quick profit. It takes a while to become profitable.”

Those who choose to raise bison will usually find them to be relatively low-maintenance livestock, the Rollers say. Bison have less-stringent nutritional requirements than cattle. They don’t need help calving. In fact, they pretty much take care of themselves, just like they have for ages.“

Our bison are relatively tame, but they are not domesticated,” Becky said. “They still have that wild place in their brain, and you never know when it’s going to activate. They’re not afraid of us, but we’re very respectful of each other’s space.”

Back Forty Bison’s business model was built on the idea of bringing genetic diversity to Missouri’s breeding stock. In building their herd, the Rollers acquired animals from many sources, including Custer State Park in South Dakota, Antelope Island State Park in Utah, and private farms in Idaho, Kansas, Colorado and Texas. 

“We noticed there was a lot of swapping animals back in forth among bison producers here in Missouri,” John said. “Because it’s a relatively small population of animals, before long the genetic pool gets fairly reduced. One of our goals was to have separate pastures with different genetics on each, so we could take a bull calf from one herd, heifers from another, and combine them with unique genetics to provide starter herds for prospective bison farms.”

So far, they’ve sold bison bundles to producers in Missouri, Wisconsin and Minnesota.“

We call it the ‘bison experience package’ because we really want people to understand what it means to raise bison,” Becky said. “New producers are always asking questions, such as what we’re doing for fertilizer, what we are planting in our pastures and what we feed them. We are willing to provide support and knowledge after the sale.”

After a few years in the bison business, the Rollers began harvesting some of the animals for their own consumption and eventually began marketing the meat to the public. They’re regular vendors at the Farmers Market of the Ozarks and the Springfield Farmers Market, offering a selection of bison products that include steaks, roasts, burger, snack sticks and jerky. 

“We end up with leftover bulls, and that’s how we got in the meat business,” John said. “We’ll butcher about a dozen animals this year and next year probably about 20. Our meat has a very nice flavor for bison, which pleasantly surprises many folks.”

Bison commands a higher price in the market than beef, John added, but people are willing to pay a premium because of its health benefits. Bison is lower in cholesterol than chicken, it’s a great source of iron, and it provides the same protein as beef with less fat and fewer calories.

“It’s very lean, and the thing is to cook it low and slow,” Becky said. “People will taste bison and think it’s really tough. And it can be, if you overcook it. It doesn’t have the fat composition to withstand overheating.”​

Focus on forage

From the beginning, the Rollers realized that pasture management had to be a priority because bison are adapted to a forage-based diet. Typical of most Midwest pastures, however, the forage available on their farm was predominantly fescue at the time. 

“We’re really grass farmers,” Rebecca said. “It didn’t take long for us to figure that out. But when we first started, all we had out here was fescue and weeds. We were doing what everyone did because we didn’t have the knowledge yet about what we really needed to do. We just went out and spread fertilizer every year.”

That’s when MFA local precision sales manager Brandon Hebbert stepped in to help. Brandon worked with the Rollers and their ranch manager, Brock Toler, to enroll their pastures in MFA’s Nutri-Track program, which provides location-specific fertilizer recommendations through grid soil sampling.

Like his employers, Brock had no previous livestock experience. He’d been working as an electrician before he joined their operation four years ago.

“We all learned together,” John said. “Brock and Becky are both great investigators and interactors. We’re open to any ideas that make sense.”

Nutri-Track made sense to the Rollers. Precision fertilization fits well with their stewardship philosophy. Plus, all four of their farms have different soil types and nutrient profiles, so a general plant food formula isn’t the most effective. 

“Our goal is to apply only what we need, where we need it,” John said. “We want to be profitable and efficient, but we also want to be sustainable. If we are going to use fertilizer, we are going to use it very responsibly. Nutri-Track helps us do the right things.”

This is the farm’s fourth year in the program, which is set up to take new soil tests once every four years. That means Back Forty Bison’s acreage is due for re-sampling next year. Brandon said he’s excited to see how the soil profile has changed since the last report.

“You can tell these pastures are in better shape than before we started Nutri-Track,” the precision specialist said. “But while you can visually see a difference, understanding what’s below the surface is what really tells the story.”

Pastures into prairies

Since he came on board, Brock has been working with the Missouri Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Conservation Service to restore a more natural forage habitat for the bison. The goal was to have 25% warm-season native grasses, which he achieved this year with planting of additional prairie at the Dadeville farm. Back Forty Bison now has 300 grazable acres divided into 10-acre paddocks for rotational grazing.

“With all our pasture movements, we try to mimic nature as much as possible,” Brock explained. “We’re not intensively grazing them in super small paddocks, but we’re still controlling a little bit of what they can do. They rarely overgraze. They’ll eat, and they’ll move. Makes my job easy.”

Along with the native warm-season grasses, Brock interseeds white, ladino or red clover and lespedeza into the pastures each winter. He uses the “frost-seeding” method, broadcasting the seeds and allowing the natural freezing and thawing action of the ground to work them into the soil.

“We want our pastures to be like a buffet, a forage polyculture,” he said. “We want to get away from traditional monoculture fescue pasture. Bison will eat fescue, but they prefer diversity in their diet.”

Brock also has implemented cover crops on some of the pastures. This fall, he drilled in a mix of winter oats, rye, barley, triticale, crimson clover, hairy vetch, turnips and radishes. He says the cover crop will prime the soil for a new diverse prairie field planned for 2020. 

Mature bison cows weigh more than 1,000 pounds, while bulls can top 2,000 pounds. Despite their bulkiness, the colossal creatures can run 35 miles an hour and jump 6 feet. Even with their spectacular size, the bison are content to stay within polywire electric fences, Brock said. The Rollers call them “happy fences.” Palatable pasture is the key.

“There’s not a fence out here that they couldn’t go over or through if they wanted to,” John said. “We just try to make sure they don’t want to. As long as they’re happy inside, they’re generally going to stay there.”

Most of the farm’s fertilizer is applied in the fall, which helps extend the grazing season and prepares the forage for gradual green-up in the spring. 

“What happens in the spring is that everything gets so stinking green so quickly, and it’s hard on the bison,” Brock said. “We don’t need that extra kick in the spring. I’d rather have it in the fall.”

Conservation in action

Back Forty Bison is taking part in a Great American Bison Diet Survey, which is being conducted by Sitting Bull College in Fort Yates, N.D., through a USDA grant. The goal of the project is to take a snapshot of the plants that bison eat across North America by analyzing fecal samples of both wild and managed herds. 

“Brock collects samples from our herd, sends them in, and they not only check what they are eating but also how efficient they are in their ruminant production,” Becky said. “That way, we know a little bit better about what nutrition is happening.”

The researchers are finding that, on average, 50% of the protein intake of bison comes from plants other than grasses, including legumes, forbs and even woody species. 

“At first, we were going to spray herbicides across all our pastures to get rid of the weeds and undesirable plants,” Brock said. “But then the study results came back and showed these bison are eating like goats. They will eat things cattle won’t eat. So we just let nature work together out here.”

He and the Rollers also are working toward getting the farm certified as a Conservation Ranch by the Audubon Society. The voluntary program promotes management practices that provide habitat for grassland birds. Typically, these practices include some type of rotational grazing approach that increases pasture plant diversity and vigor, resulting in higher-quality grassland habitat across a ranch.

The reward for achieving the certification is the right to label their bison products as “grazed on bird-friendly land.” Brock expects the farm to be certified by the end of 2019.

“I’m usually obsessive about keeping our pastures cut down, but we’ve let them grow up this year for the birds,” Brock said. “It’s another way to be good stewards of the land.”

All of these efforts are part of Back Forty Bison’s commitment to not only conserving these iconic American animals but also the land they inhabit. That commitment is spelled out in the farm’s tagline: “Bringing ’Em Back.”

“If you go back to when the bison roamed the great prairies, they helped support an entire ecosystem,” Becky said. “Because of the way they grazed, they built prairie habitat for other wildlife. Our goal is to eventually get to a point where they are doing their job and earning their keep in maintaining the prairies we’re building here on our farm.”

For more information on Back Forty Bison,visit online at back40bison.com or call 417-995-4485. To learn more about MFA’s Nutri-Track program, talk with your local precision specialist or visit mfa-inc.com/PrecisionAg/Nutri_Track.

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Century of service

The pork burgers and bratwursts sizzling on the grill were more than just a way to feed guests at the 100th anniversary celebration of MFA Cooperative Association No. 2 in Washington on Sept. 4. The meal represented the sense of community that has characterized this local MFA affiliate since it was incorporated Aug. 2, 1919. 

“Every year, we purchase a couple of hogs at the Washington Town and Country Fair’s Blue Ribbon Auction, and this year, we had one of them processed into burgers and brats for our customer appreciation day,” said Co-op General Manager Paul Brune. “It’s 4-H and FFA members raising these animals, and we feed a lot of those projects. It’s a way to give back to the kids and the community. That’s what the co-op is all about.”

That cooperative spirit is a two-way street, said Board President Rich Deppe, who operates a farrow-to-finish swine farm and raises 4,300 acres of row crops with his family near Washington. The Deppes are longtime members of MFA, and many other farmers in the area can say the same. He says consistent, loyal farmer support has helped Washington reach the 100-year mark, a milestone that few businesses ever achieve.

“You can credit that accomplishment to the support of the community as a whole and a lot of successful farmers who have been here for generations,” Deppe said. “They support the MFA, and MFA supports them in return. I’ve been a customer here as long as I can remember, and so was my dad and my grandpa—and now my kids and grandkids. It continues on.”

Originally, the co-op was located in downtown Washington on the banks of the Missouri River. The farmer-owned business moved to its flagship facility on Highway 100 in 1980 and added a location in New Haven in 1983. The cooperative grew again with the purchase of a facility in Marthasville in 2001 and a bulk fertilizer facility in Washington in 2009. 

Most recently, the group added a new location in the St. Louis suburb of Foristell, purchasing a farm-and-home business formerly owned by the Vehige family. Across the entire operation, the cooperative now has 21 employees.“

Right now, it’s pretty tough to grow in farming industry, so the easiest way to grow is keep buying locations,” Brune said. “Foristell is going to be good for us. It’s a well-run, well-respected business. They do liquid fertilizer and crop spraying. That, in combination with what we do on the precision and dry fertilizer side, is just the perfect fit.”

Widening its footprint isn’t the only way MFA Co-op Association No. 2 has changed during its century of service. The business has continually evolved with the needs of its farmers, Brune said. Its extensive menu of products and services reflects the diversity of agriculture in the area, which is rich in both row crops and livestock. The co-op serves several large swine operations and dairies as well as beef cattle farms.

On the crop side, growers can access all the inputs and application services they need, including seed, crop protection products, anhydrous and dry and liquid fertilizer. When Brune came on board as manager five years ago, he brought MFA’s precision agriculture programs to the area. Enrolled acreage has steadily grown each year, he said. 

The co-op’s custom, grind-and-mix feeds are popular with livestock producers, who can also select from a full line of bagged feeds. Brune said the co-op was the one of the first to offer MFA Shield Technology in its swine feeds. Shield is a proprietary blend of essential oils and other additives that help prevent sickness and promote performance in livestock without antibiotics.“

When I started, we only had about 30% of the swine feed business,” Brune said. “Now it’s 95%—all because of Shield Technology.”

The co-op’s farm-and-home retail store also attracts steady walk-in traffic, with customers looking for chicken feed, food-plot products, pet items, gardening supplies and oftentimes, expert advice.“

You’ll have customers who walk in off the street and want to raise a few goats or some backyard chickens, and we try to educate them as best we can,” Brune said. “If they go into another farm-and-home store, they’re not going to have the knowledge to coach these people to do what they need to do. If we can help them be successful, they’ll gain confidence in the co-op, and then, hopefully, they’ll buy everything from us.”

The Washington group is structured as a local farmer-owned cooperative made up of about 300 members and governed by its own five-member board of directors. As an affiliate of MFA Incorporated, Cooperative Association No. 2 has access to greater buying power, a wider array of services and the expertise of knowledgeable nutritionists, agronomists and field staff. The mutually beneficial partnership also exercises one of the key cooperative principles—working with other co-ops to better serve the membership.“

It’s patron-owned. We share in the profits. I like that whole concept,” Deppe said. “These days, it seems like a lot of big corporations are taking over everything. But MFA does things a little bit different. They are here to do what’s in the best interest of us farmers. I don’t know what we’d do without our co-op.”

Both Deppe and Brune attribute the longevity of their cooperative to progressive boards, loyal members and visionary leadership. They say it will take that same combination for MFA Cooperative Association No. 2 to make it another 100 years.“

In some areas it could be difficult to be around that long, especially when you’re dealing with farmers, but in this area, people work together. That’s key,” Brune said. “Plus, you’ve got to have the right board and employees and members to change with the times. It means you have to look ahead and see what’s next. If you don’t do that, you’re not going to last.”

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Raising a stink

Known for its pungent odor, robust flavor and mythical vampire-repelling power, garlic has long been an essential kitchen staple for home cooks and professional chefs alike. In recent years, however, the popularity of this aromatic allium has soared, especially among Americans. Garlic consumption has quadrupled in the U.S. since 1980, with each person now eating more than 2 pounds per year, according to USDA. 

However, most of that garlic was grown elsewhere, likely China, which produces 80% of the global supply. Not only is the U.S. the world’s largest garlic consumer, it is also the world’s largest garlic importer, purchasing about 340 million pounds annually. That’s about half of domestic demand. In the U.S., about 400 million pounds of garlic is produced, mainly in California with Oregon, Nevada, Washington and New York following in the distance. 

Horticulture specialists at the University of Missouri Extension would like to see more of that production move into the Midwest.

“Garlic is a specialty crop that Missouri is well-suited for growing,” said Patrick Byers, MU horticulture field specialist in Webster County. “Farmers can produce a significant amount of garlic on a small plot of land with good profit potential.”

In May, Byers helped organize and host the first-ever Missouri Garlic School to foster interest in growing this specialty crop on a commercial scale. The day-long event in Springfield, Mo., included classroom presentations from national and regional experts and tours of local produce farms where garlic is grown. More than 75 people attended, such as Micah Kuenzle, who operates FirstFruits Valley Farms near Ozark, Mo. The young farmer is considering growing garlic behind his pumpkin crop. 

“This conference has been very helpful because garlic is new for me,” Kuenzle said. “The acreage I’m farming is small, so I’m always looking for ways to make it more productive.”

Planted in the fall for summer harvest, garlic is a cool-season crop in the same family as onions, chives, shallots and leeks. There are two main types of garlic, hard-neck and soft-neck, as well as elephant garlic, which is more closely related to a leek. Most garlic found at the supermarket is soft-neck because it is easier to grow and keeps longer than hard-neck varieties. Hard-neck varieties, on the other hand, can withstand colder temperatures and are the only ones that produce scapes, the flavorful serpentine stems that grow from the bulb. The scapes are typically harvested in early summer to allow the garlic plant to channel all its energy into the bulb. They’re a value-added product for farmers and seasonal favorite among consumers.

All these types of garlic can be successfully grown in this region, said Rusty Lee, Extension agronomy field specialist in Montgomery County, who spoke at the Garlic School. In addition to researching its production, Lee grows garlic commercially at his family farm in Truxton, Mo. 

“Missouri produces about half the yields per acre as California, but our soil and climate still produce good yields,” he said. “Garlic needs a cold winter, wet spring and dry summer. We’re in a good growing area.”

Garlic not only grows well in the Midwest, but it also sells well, said Dan Bigbee, owner of Fassnight Creek Farm, one of the tour stops for the Garlic School students. He recently added garlic to his diverse selection, which includes vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. He operates on about 30 acres surrounded by subdivisions and development in the heart of Springfield and sells to consumers directly from his on-farm store. 

“I got interested in garlic last year after seeing it bring retail price or higher at wholesale auctions,” Bigbee said. “When you see that in any kind of agricultural market, your ears perk up. It’s just like having a homegrown tomato. People are willing to pay more for locally grown garlic than grocery store garlic.”

Fellow Springfield farmer Curtis Millsap also has found that garlic is a popular product among his community supported agriculture, farmers market and restaurant customers. The organic producer now raises five different varieties of garlic among the fruits and vegetables on his family’s Millsap Farms, the final stop on the Garlic School tour. He admits, however, that it took trial and error to learn how to grow the crop successfully.

“We’ve been here for 12 years and planted garlic the first year. We lost the crop every year for five years,” said Millsap. “Weed pressure was our biggest problem, and I was about ready to quit. We starting using biodegradable plastic mulch, and that was the game changer.”

Indeed, weeds can be garlic’s No. 1 enemy, said Crystal Stewart of Cornell Cooperative Extension, the featured speaker for the May conference. Stewart works with diversified vegetable farmers throughout a 17-county region in eastern New York. Her presentations covered pest management and post-harvest handling.

“If you really want your garlic to be amazing, you want to create a great growing environment—and that starts with weed control,” Stewart said. “Weeds compete with garlic for nutrients and create a moist environment, which makes it easier for diseases to develop.”

Pinpointing exact recommendations for growing garlic is difficult, Stewart said, because conditions vary from farm to farm and region to region. But she and the MU experts shared general tips with the Garlic School attendees based on research results and firsthand experience.

“What I might recommend to one grower is different from another,” Stewart said. “Use your horticulture skills and listen to what the garlic is telling you. If you do that, you’ll find the right garlic and have good results.”

Selecting varieties

Garlic is grown from cloves, the individual pieces of the garlic bulb. Don’t buy garlic from the supermarket to plant. Those bulbs have often been treated with growth inhibitors for a longer shelf life. Use certified seed garlic or cloves saved from garlic that was grown locally and is adapted to the native climate. Many growers save their own seedstock to plant, Lee said.“

Plant the best, and eat the rest,” he said. “Just by selecting the larger cloves to plant, it made a dramatic difference in the size and quality of the garlic we grew.”

Planting

Generally, garlic can be planted in the Midwest from late September until early November, before the first hard frost. This allows roots to develop but limits growth of shoots. Garlic will begin to sprout when the ground starts to warm up in early spring. Garlic grows best in a sunny location in soil that is well drained yet moisture-retentive and relatively high in organic matter. Separate individual cloves from the bulb, leaving the papery skin covering the clove intact. Select the large, outer cloves with the biggest heads. Plant in rows about 6 inches apart with cloves placed about 6 inches apart as well. Put the root end down (pointy end up) in a hole or furrow about 1 inch deep. Cover loosely with topsoil. 

Controlling weeds & pests

Only a limited number of herbicides are registered for use on garlic, so starting with a weed-free planting bed is essential. A non-selective herbicide such as glyphosate can be used as a burndown to help control perennial weeds. Thoroughly tilling the planting site is also an option. Either plant the cloves into a layer of plastic mulch or cover beds with loose mulch such as straw after planting to inhibit weeds, protect the soil from extreme cold and conserve moisture. “

Think about reducing weed pressure the year before planting garlic in that spot,” Stewart said. “What I like to do is intensively cover crop, depending on what weed problems I have. Crop rotation can also help. For example, if you follow a legume crop with garlic, then you’ve also helped grow your own fertility.”

Garlic is considered to be relatively pest-free, but it is prone to several diseases such as botrytis, fusarium (basal or bulb rot) and white rot (sclerotinia). Insects that can become a problem include thrips (especially during dry weather), onion maggots and wireworms. It’s important to plant healthy seed and work in clean fields. Crop rotation and moisture management can also help alleviate many pest problems.

Fertilizing

Garlic has moderate-to-high fertility requirements, especially for nitrogen. Conduct a soil test and apply recommended amounts of phosphorus, potassium, and lime before planting. A general rule of thumb is to use 3 pounds of a balanced fertilizer such as 10-10-10 per 100 square feet. Supplemental nitrogen should also be applied as soon as the leaves emerge in the spring and again about two weeks later. Avoid late applications of nitrogen, which can delay bulb formation.

“Optimizing fertility is a key to success,” Stewart said. “If everything else is right and your garlic still isn’t happy, look at your fertility.”

Watering

As is the case with most vegetables, garlic benefits from adequate amounts of water. If rainfall is not sufficient, use supplemental irrigation through drip lines or other sources. However, avoid applying too much water since excess moisture can result in bulb rot. Do not irrigate garlic once the leaves begin to mature and dry.

Harvesting

In the Midwest, garlic is usually ready to harvest between the second week of July and the first week of August. The garlic leaves will start to yellow and die back as the garlic matures. Stewart suggests harvesting and cutting open a sampling of garlic bulbs to determine if they are ready.

“Cloves grow from the inside out, so it should push as far against the skin as possible without breaking it,” she explained.

To harvest, dig or undercut the bulb with its roots and leaves attached. Leaves can be trimmed before curing if you prefer. 

“In our research, we showed no statistically significant differences in trimmed versus untrimmed garlic in terms of bulb quality, weight or disease incidence,” Stewart said. “So really, it’s your preference whether you want to leave the tops on or not.”

Remove excess soil or mud, but avoid washing newly harvested bulbs. Much like paper yellows after it gets wet, Stewart said she found that washing can discolor the bulb’s outer wrappers.

Curing and storing

There are many different methods of curing and storing garlic, the Extension experts said, but in general the harvested bulbs need to be in a dry environment with good air circulation for three to four weeks. Either tie bulbs together and hang them to cure or spread in a single layer on drying racks. 

“How do you know if it’s dry?” Stewart asked. “The way I tell is to take five or six bulbs and then peel back to the inner leaf. If the innermost leaf is dry, you know everything is dried. As soon as it’s dried, get it into your storage environment, because it will keep losing moisture. Over-drying garlic is a big problem.”

After curing, the bulbs will be ready for storage in a cool, dark place such as a basement or heated garage. Store garlic below 75° and below 75% relative humidity. Expected storage life depends on type. Hard-neck types will store for three or four months whereas soft-neck types can be stored for six to eight months. To keep fresh bulbs longer, immediately place harvested garlic in cold storage—around 32° and 70% relative humidity. Keep in mind, however, when cold-stored garlic is brought to warmer temperatures, it will soon start sprouting.

“You have to know when to harvest and how to store it properly,” Stewart said. “It’s disheartening to produce awesome garlic only to find out it rotted after harvest.”For more information, visit online at extension.missouri.edu. The MU Garlic School is slated to return in the spring of 2020. Watch for details at extension.missouri.edu/greene.

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