Before pastures begin to green up is the time to start planning for parasite control and preparing cattle for turning out on grass. Don’t wait until pests begin appearing before you implement your plan of attack.
Flies, grubs, lice, ticks and worms lower animal performance, which can be costly. Controlling these pests can have a positive economic impact on your livestock operation. In MFA territory, fly control should be a key focus of your parasite management plan.
Nationally, horn flies are the external pests that cause the greatest economic losses, costing producers some $1 billion annually. Horn flies are often present for more than half the year, and their feeding causes skin irritation, anemia, decreased feed intake, reduced weight gains and diminished milk production. Horn flies have also been implicated in the spread of summer mastitis. A common cost of horn flies on growing cattle is 0.2 pounds average daily gain or 1.5 pounds per week. For nursing calves, fly control on cows will increase weaning weights by about 15 pounds.
You can get a head start on fly season by doing a little early “spring cleaning.” Eliminate potential breeding areas by removing leftover hay and other spilled feeds from winter feeding. Till the areas around bale feeders to help dry these spots. Clean facilities, particularly areas with manure, to eliminate potential breeding grounds, and ensure standing water is limited to what is necessary.
Once warmer weather arrives, there are several effective options for fly control. A multi-faceted approach that lasts throughout the season is always recommended for best results. Insecticide ear tags, available through MFA Animal Health, are a good, simple control option. Usually fly tags should be placed in late spring when fly counts reach a threshold such as 50 flies per side. Tag in mid-May or even June to get the best use out of the tag later in the grazing season. July and August tend to be particularly heavy horn fly months.
Oilers or dusters can be used during peak fly season. They need to be located at mineral sites or water tanks where a producer is sure every animal will walk underneath the oiler or duster for fly protection. Often this is a preferred method for cattle in a quick pasture rotation.
Cattle can also be sprayed with insecticides periodically while out on pasture. This needs to be repeated frequently, and the protection is prone to loss due to rain. Always follow label directions.
Pour-on treatments can conveniently be applied when animals are being run through handling equipment or in alleys. Again, always follow label requirements.
Feed-through products, such as Altosid IGR (insect growth regulator) in MFA Ricochet minerals, are particularly effective for flies that grow in manure. IGRs provide a tremendous advantage because they control the insects’ development so they don’t mature. Horn flies are particularly vulnerable to feed-through pesticides.
In addition to horn flies, stable flies and horse flies also irritate cattle and reduce animal performance. Stable flies generally will be found on the legs of cattle. They live in decomposing vegetation and tend to show up earlier in the year than horn flies. Good sanitation is effective in interrupting the stable fly’s life cycle.
Horse flies are tough but important to control because they can transmit anaplasmosis. The females are the blood feeders, and they have a relative short time that they feed. Horse flies tend to be close to water because their larvae develop in semi-aquatic environments. Using a pyrethroid product and fly traps can be helpful.
When considering pest management, worm control is important, too. Endectocides treat both internal and external parasites, so a pour-on dewormer will also control flies. It is important to use the product appropriately and always follow label instructions. Treating internal parasites improves immunity, which leads to improved feed consumption and conversion. Deworming cows in the spring prior to turnout helps keep infestations down.
Check with the livestock specialists at your MFA or AGChoice location to help plan a comprehensive control program before pests start bugging your herd this year.
As cold weather settles over the Midwest, keep in mind that you aren’t the only one who feels the chill—your calves do, too. You can protect yourself by wearing more layers and turning up the heat, but your calves can’t. It’s up to you to adapt their housing and feeding programs for winter conditions.
When temperatures drop, calves exposed to the cold are more susceptible to respiratory tract infections, and if they’re not fed adequately, they won’t grow as quickly because they’re using their energy to keep warm instead. Whether you keep calves in barns or hutches, follow these steps to help ensure their comfort and health.
• Check the feeding temperature of your milk and colostrum. Milk cools quickly when exposed to colder environmental temperatures and poured into cold bottles or buckets. If you feed milk replacer, you may need to increase your mixing temperature to ensure the milk is warm enough when it reaches the last calf.
• Monitor wash water temperature. If you’re washing bottles or buckets in the sink, check your water temperature to make sure it is warmer than 120º. When the wash water cools, the fat and protein particles can come out of the solution and stick to the plastic, resulting in dirty equipment.
• Patch any holes in calf hutches and make sure they are not drafty. The job of the calf hutch is to keep the calf warm, dry and out of the elements. When intact, hutches do a great job at creating a draft-free environment for the calf. However, if there’s a hole in the hutch, it creates a pathway for airflow, and the calf has little room to get out of the draft. This results in a higher risk of disease and a lower rate of gain for that animal.
• Check the ventilation system. In calf barns, proper air exchange is critical for calf health. Make sure your fans are clean and functioning properly. Check your positive-pressure tubes for damage and repair or replace if necessary. Make sure curtains close properly and there are no openings that could create a draft.
• Provide adequate bedding. If you haven’t already obtained straw for bedding, find some now. Straw keeps the calf dry and provides insulation. Straw should be deep enough that the calf’s legs are covered when it lies down. Beds must be dry. You should be able to kneel on the pack without your pants getting wet. If your knees are wet, the calf is wet. When the calf’s coat is wet or dirty, the hair loses its insulating value, and the calf loses more heat to the environment. For example, imagine the difference in your comfort between going outside in a dry coat or going outside in a wet coat.
• Ensure windbreaks are adequate. If you live in a part of the country where windbreaks are a necessity, you’ve likely already taken care of this. For those in other areas, think about how the wind travels through your farm and whether a windbreak would provide protection for your calves and heifers. Sometimes the wind comes between buildings and over a calf or heifer pen. A row of strategically placed big bales can have a dramatic effect on calf comfort, health and performance.
• Review the plan for keeping newborns warm and dry. If you use a calf warming box, make sure it’s clean and in working order. If you use heat lamps, test the bulbs to see they are working and inspect the cords for damage. Stock the area where calves are processed with calf jackets so employees can put them on as soon as the calf is dry. Review how employees will care for a calf born in the muck. It will need to be warmed up, washed and dried in a place where manure won’t be passed on to other calves coming through the system.
• Verify the feeding program. A calf’s maintenance requirement increases dramatically when the weather is cold. It uses energy to keep warm, leaving less energy for growth. To keep a calf growing and healthy when temperatures drop, it needs to consume more solids. There are several ways to achieve this: Feed more frequently, feed more volume each time or increase the solids content. Talk with your calf nutritionist to develop a strategy for getting more milk solids into your calves. Calf starters also provide nutrients necessary for growth, so be sure each calf has fresh, palatable and high-quality starter available at all times.
Cooler weather brings weaning calves, politician promises, hunting season and increased incidence of lice predation in cattle. Left uncontrolled, lice can cause problems in the herd. Protecting cattle from lice entails understanding the life cycle of lice, recognizing the potential damage and using effective methods of control.
In general, every herd has some level of lice infestation. Lice are carried from season to season by a small percentage of the herd that act as reservoir hosts. Clinical signs of lice-infected cattle generally begin with constant rubbing and scratching within the herd. Fences, posts, water troughs, trees and any other stationary object could be subject to damage from this rubbing. As the infection and irritation continue, large hairless patches will become evident on animals.
Beyond clinical signs, further diagnosis requires seeing adult lice on the skin. Parting the hair will reveal the lice. They are very small— roughly the size of a grain of sand— but can still be seen. The economic threshold for treatment is roughly 10 lice per square inch.
Louse life cycles are generally three to four weeks and spent entirely on animals. First, female lice lay eggs, which are glued to the host’s hair. Nymphs hatch from the eggs one to two weeks later and become fully developed adults in about two weeks. Adult females can lay approximately 30 to 40 eggs during their life. If not controlled, a single adult female in September can result in approximately 1 million lice by January.
Two types of lice live on cattle: sucking lice and biting lice. Sucking lice feed on the host’s blood and are most often found along the top line of an animal’s back. However, they can spread to the poll and tail head. Biting lice, which ingest skin, hair and scabs, are more widespread on the body. In the U.S., cattle can be infested by one species of biting louse, Bovicola bovis, and four species of sucking lice: the long-nosed cattle louse (Linognathus vituli), the little blue cattle louse (Solenopotes capillatus), the short-nosed cattle louse (Haematopinus eurysternus), and the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus).
Lice infestation can result in lameness, allergic responses, restlessness, agitation and skin damage from excessive rubbing or scratching. Open skin leaves cattle more inclined to illness and infections. If left uncontrolled, lice can cause anemia, lower milk production, decreased feed efficiency and reduced weight gain. Cattle with lice will recover from disease stress slower than non-infested cattle.
Both sucking and biting lice are equally harmful to cattle, and both respond to the same treatments. There are a variety of insecticides that can effectively control lice. Dusts, pour-on products and sprays provide easy-to-use and versatile treatment options. Traditional treatments involve a two-step process: First, treatment to kill adults and nymphs on the animal, followed by a second treatment three weeks later to kill adult lice and nymphs that hatched from eggs after the first treatment. Treated cattle should be re-examined about two weeks later.
One treatment option is avermectin endectocides. These products come in pour-on formulations and injectable formulations. Avermectins treat internal intestinal nematodes but also treat external parasites such as lice. It is important to note that the injectable formulations do not work on biting lice since they do not blood feed. Another option is a non-systemic topical treatment, typically pyrethroid products similar to what is used to control horn flies during the summer. These products are very effective against adult lice but do not affect the larvae or eggs. Retreatment is often needed 14 days after initial treatment.
Management practices should be undertaken to prevent re-infestation. Lice are spread primarily through animal-to-animal contact, including feeding, resting, breeding or shipping. Due to this threat, facilities used by infested cattle should either be treated with insecticide or remain empty for 10 days before allowing clean stock to enter. Any new animals should be isolated from the resident herd and treated before they are introduced to the herd.
Read the pesticide label and use only according to the directions. Know what personal protection equipment is required. Be sure that those making the application are trained in the proper use of each product and the appropriate equipment.
In fall and winter, most pastures are lower in protein than other times of year. Producers often like to continue grazing as long as possible. One of the most effective ways of improving the utilization of the forage is to feed additional protein to meet the animal’s requirement.
Adequate protein content is crucial for optimal microbial growth and animal performance. Rumen microbial growth is reduced in diets that are low in protein. With protein supplementation on dormant pasture, the rumen microbial population will have a higher growth rate, improving the energy available to the animal and increasing the intake of low-quality forages. In other words, protein provided through supplements such as liquid feed, cubes, blocks or tubs improves digestion of low-quality forages.
The key number is 9% crude protein. That’s the average protein requirement for cows, even for mid-gestation dry cows whose calves are weaned. The rumen microbes can make a living on a slightly lower protein content, so if we meet the cow’s requirement, we should cover the rumen needs.
If protein level in forage falls below 7%, it limits microbial fermentation in the rumen. The animal can’t grow a large enough population of microbes to get the job done. Digestion slows, forage moves more slowly through the tract and the cow can’t eat as much because fiber digestion is reduced.
To ensure adequate nutrition during fall and winter grazing, you need to know the protein level in the forage. Cattle are selective grazers. If you clip a sample of forage, it may be poorer in protein content than what they are actually eating. You’ll come closer to an accurate estimate by observing what they are eating and hand-plucking a sample of similar plants. Many native cool-season grasses can be good fall and winter pasture without a protein supplement. They have more nutrients in their mature, dormant state than many tame grasses do. Many stockpiled fescue samples are adequate, often with greater than 10% protein content.
Watch cow body condition and ensure they stay in good flesh. Evaluate the viscosity of manure. Beef cattle manure in the spring or on any lush green feed is very loose, almost liquid. This is a sign of excess protein. The material is digested quickly, traveling through the digestive tract too fast with waste of some nutrients. Often performance is good. On the other hand, if the manure is hard and makes a pile that stacks up, this can be a sign of protein deficiency. There’s not enough to digest forage efficiently and keep things moving through at a proper pace. Ideally, manure should be moist and loose but not liquid. It would stack maybe 1.5 inches high. This is how it would generally be when forage is green and protein level is in the low teens, about where it should be.
It is interesting to observe how well cattle do when you first put them into a new, ungrazed dormant pasture. They select a diet higher in protein and energy than in the average forage. The longer they stay in that pasture, the less protein they’re getting, because they are eating the higher-quality material first.
Young animals need more protein because they have a growth requirement, whereas the mature dry cow just needs maintenance. Replacements or stockers can’t hold as much feed as older animals, and they have less ability to ferment large enough amounts of low-quality forages. This can be partially addressed with grazing management. Forward graze the young animals. Let them graze a pasture first and get the best material to meet their higher requirements. Then let the cows clean up after them. The cows may need a protein supplement because the forage that would have allowed them to meet requirements of the rumen microbes has probably already been eaten.
There are many kinds of supplements and nitrogen sources. The question comes down to what is economical and available and how much needs to be fed. The next point is to determine what is going to be used and how it will be fed. The supplement might be 2 pounds per day of hand-fed Ricochet Breeder Cubes, a self-feeder full of Cadence or half a percent of bodyweight of MFA Trendsetter three times a week. How we provide the feed may depend on how far over the fence the truck can deliver or how many sacks we can get on the four-wheeler.
Some feed additives need to be fed very uniformly, such as melengestrol acetate—also known as MGA. Urea is better fed frequently, particularly when fed at higher rates. For ionophores or all-natural protein supplements, the reduction in utility is small if they’re fed every other day rather than every day. Feeding a supplement such as MFA Breeder Cubes can be done three times a week with acceptable results on mid-gestation beef cows in good flesh. Check with your livestock specialist about the right supplements for your operation.
Corn residue is an abundant, affordable feedstuff in the Corn Belt. Yet each year, acres upon acres go ungrazed, even on diversified farms. Grazing cornstalks is a significant source of feed for a cow-calf operation, but there are challenges: fencing, water, supplementation, compaction and the impact of grazing on the following grain crop, to name a few.
Over three years, University of Illinois researchers measured cow performance, residue quality and utilization as well as subsequent crop yield. Two grazing methods—strip grazing and continuous grazing— and an ungrazed control were used. Following corn harvest, cows were allowed to graze for six weeks.
In the continuous-grazed treatment, cows were allowed access to the full paddock the entire time. The stocking rate was 1.2 cows per acre.
In the strip-grazed treatment, the field was divided into three sections. Cows were allowed access to a new strip every two weeks. No back fencing was used. Thus, after 14 days, cows had access to the first strip and the new second strip. During the last two weeks, the cows had access to the entire paddock.
Residue grazing started in late September the first year, in early November the second year and in early October the third year. The acres were maintained in continuous corn during the trial period. Spring tillage occurred each year.
The research resulted in four main points:
Grazing residue for a six-week period following corn harvest did not impact subsequent crop yield. This was true for both continuous grazing and strip grazing.
Grazing helped remove and incorporate residue. Roughly 4 tons of dry matter per acre were available for grazing. Residue available after grazing in either treatment was close to half of what was initially in the field. In the ungrazed control paddock, 78% of residue remained, with losses likely due to wind and plant degradation.
Cattle consumed mainly husks and leaves. Cobs also declined.
Stalk percentage increased due to reduction of other components. After grazing, the actual weight of the stalk component was similar across all treatments, which illustrates the selectivity of cattle grazing cornstalks. Cattle look for more palatable feedstuffs. Cattle first eat the remaining corn grain, then husks, then leaves and finally the stalk.
Cows that strip grazed corn residue had increased bodyweight gains and weighed more than cows in the continuous-grazed trial. It’s likely that the strip-grazed treatment potentially partitioned nutrients more evenly over the period.
Measures of residue showed strip grazing had more nutritive quality toward the end of the grazing period. The strip-grazed cows were allowed less area to travel for the first two two-week periods. Continuous-grazed cows spent more time searching for palatable residue. This extra time spent traveling the area not only resulted in increased maintenance requirement, but also could have increased trampling of husks and leaves, thus reducing available residue for consumption.
Operations on heavy, deep, poorly drained soils can still benefit from cornstalk grazing, but management is needed to reduce traffic and avoid higher stocking rates during wet periods. But if the operation is not limited in corn acres, then stocking density is easily addressed by allowing more acres per paddock or by using a continuous-grazing system.
Because cattle eat the more-digestible and higher-protein portions first, a good mineral may be the only supplementation needed for the first month. The exception is a herd that includes fall-calving cows or stocker calves. For them, a supplement will be necessary to meet nutrient demands of lactation and growth, respectively
Today's Farmer is published 9 times annually. Printed issues arrive monthly except combined issues for June/July, August/September and December/January. Subscriptions are available only in the United States.
If you would like to begin or renew a print subscription, CLICK HERE and go to our shop. We are proud to offer the subscription for only $15 per year.