Management to prevent resistant weeds will still be critical
For the past three months, I have been traveling MFA’s trade territory participating in grower meetings. As you can imagine, the main topic of conversation was poor weed control and the drought we faced in 2012. I hope that the 2013 growing season is more forgiving than the hot and dry days of 2012, and, while I may not be able to provide any future direction on the weather, I can provide some insight on upcoming crop technologies.
There are several new technologies in the pipeline. Crops bred to tolerate Dicamba, 2,4-D and HPPD will be available in the near future. We’ve also heard about additional technology breakthroughs that will be on your farm before 2025. These technologies will arrive with several challenges for growers and applicators (drift, tank contamination etc.).
In the near future, you will see Monsanto’s Roundup Ready 2 Xtend. This latest Genuity soybean trait gives crops tolerance to dicamba. Roundup Xtend is an enhanced dicamba-and-glyphosate herbicide premix. Monsanto plans to have a follow-up introduction for cotton with Bollgard II RR Xtend with LibertyLink. Pending regulatory approvals, Monsanto will launch the first Roundup Ready 2 Xtend for the 2014 growing season.
The Enlist Weed Control System is Dow AgroSciences’ newest corn, soybean and cotton trait. Enlist crops are tolerant to Enlist Duo herbicide with Colex-D technology. Enlist Duo is a proprietary blend of glyphosate and new 2,4-D choline. The Enlist system will combine herbicide-tolerant traits that will allow producers to apply the new 2,4-D choline, glyphosate and glufosinate (in corn and soybeans), and FOP chemistries (in corn). Pending regulatory approvals Dow AgroSciences will launch the Enlist weed control system in 2013 for corn, followed by soybeans in 2015, and cotton in 2016.
Bayer CropScience and Sygenta will bring soybeans tolerant to HPPD (Balance or Laudis) herbicides to the market in 2015, pending regulatory approval. HPPD herbicides are already being used in corn with great success.
As I mentioned above, these technologies still need regulatory approval. But once they receive approval, and you have them on your farm, you will still have a few management concerns to consider. You will need to get the right crop protection product aligned with the right seed technology. The dicamba and 2,4-D formulations you are currently using are not the same formulations suggested for new herbicide-tolerant crop lines. Monsanto and Dow have done extensive research and testing to develop a formulation that reduces potential for drift and volatilization. Having said that, I want to remind you that using common drift reduction practices is a must for application of all herbicides. The new technologies I’ve mentioned will require another management step to avoid tank contamination or misapplication of the wrong herbicides. Dicamba and 2,4-D are two different herbicides. If you apply dicamba to a 2,4-D tolerant crop it will be desiccated and visa versa.
New technologies are not a stand-alone system. We must continue to use multiple modes of action and preemergence herbicides. Overlapping residuals will still be recommended for all future technologies. The concept of placing a preemergence herbicide and following 21 to 30 days later with another residual herbicide is gaining acceptance. The best chance we have at controlling weeds is controlling them before they emerge. Remember, if you don’t manage your weeds they will manage you.
Dr. Jason Weirich is director of agronomy for MFA Incorporated.
As you plan for next season’s weed control, think preemergence
In my April column, I visited about the use of preemerege herbicides and their need in assisting producers’ battle against herbicide resistance. Over the past few months, I have had several calls claiming residual herbicides had no value on growers’ farms, while other growers stated that residual herbicides were the best thing since sliced bread. I learned through visiting with a particular customer that he applied the residual herbicide behind the press wheel and started clean. However, the first rain on the field didn’t come until nearly four weeks after application. The activating rain was too late. It is likely the herbicide was already degraded by the first rain and the weeds were already emerging with the crops. Unfortunately, that situation was all too common this year.
Another all-too-common issue for 2012 was to plant first and then later attempt to clean up the field. Once the crop is planted, the options for controlling weeds such as giant ragweed, marestail and waterhemp are limited. Tillage is a viable herbicide option before the crop is in the ground.
I am talking about the failures of weed control this year to remind you that there are no silver bullets. As much as I would like to inform you that using glyphosate the same way you always have used will deliver the same results, that just isn’t the case.
As we move into the planning process for the next growing season, let’s prepare for success. Residual herbicides must continue to be a foundation for any cropping system. Even though we need moisture to activate the herbicide, it is still our best option to controlling weeds. Our best chance to control tough weeds is to never allow them out of the ground. The use of residual herbicides adds another management step to our programs, but we must be willing to manage the weeds or they will manage us.
If you planted LibertyLink soybean this year, I hope enough Liberty was available to cover your acres. The shortages of Liberty were global, making it a very stressful year across all the crop growing areas in the United States. As we progress into preparing for next year, go ahead and book your Liberty for the next season with your local MFA. I often get the question of how much Liberty a particular grower will need, and my general response is two full-labeled-rate applications worth. Two applications not only allow you to feel comfortable about the technology, it also allows our stores to plan for the next year’s Liberty supply. Even though Liberty has been very effective, I also recommend the use of residual herbicides at the full-labeled rate. Application of the residual herbicide will not only reduce the amount of pressure you are putting on Liberty, but add another mode of action to the mix.
In May, MFA gained a staff agronomist, Kellar Nelson, who has been tasked with the LibertyLink project. She graduated from the University of Missouri with a Master’s in Plant and Soil Science. This past year, MFA planted ten LibertyLink soybean variety trials across the state. Nelson visited these trials bi-weekly from planting to harvest to evaluate variety placement throughout the state.
Contact your local MFA for Nelson’s and other final variety yield reports or for more information on MorCorn, MorSoy Xtra, or MorSoy LibertyLink crops.
Dr. Jason Weirich is director of agronomy for MFA Incorporated.
Every year I get questions that focus on fertility. My first response is to ask, “Have you pulled a soil sample?” The typical response I get is, “I think so.”
Just what role should soil testing play in your farming operation?
Soil sampling is not a perfect science. However, it can be a valuable component of your agronomy programs by following a few basic principles.
The standard soil sampling depth is six to seven inches. This depth represents approximately two million pounds of soil—a convenient conversion number. I recommend that you stay close to this depth. Equations that soil testing labs use were developed with that standard depth.
You need a strategy for sampling fields. The general rule of thumb is a “composite” soil sample is not to be greater than 20 acres.
For example: an 80-acre field needs four separate soil samples. Try to divide sampling areas from fields greater than 20 acres into a management zone. These zones can be based upon soil type, history, yield potential, field geography, field use or other logical divisions.
Each composite sample should have 12 to 25 soil cores. This allows you to collect a representative soil sample from that area. Fewer than 12 cores per sample can lead to poor representation if one of the cores is extremely high or low in a given nutrient. If you have banded any fertilizer applications, you must have at least 20 cores per sample.
Another question I often get is, “How often should I resample?”
I suggest every two to four years, depending upon the crop grown, fertilizer utilized, environmental conditions and other agronomic components. Try to resample fields the same time of year, and preferably after the same cropping sequence.
Precision agriculture programs usually sample in a tighter acreage pattern. Some programs use standardized grid samples while others use management zones. Most grid sampling is done on 2.5-acre grids. MFA’s precision program often offers a combination of composite, grid and management zone sampling. This provides producers with the ability to apply the right amount of nutrients to the right acre, and it gives growers a great range of agronomic and economic options. Contact your local MFA to see how MFA’s precision program can help you and your farm increase profits.
Regardless of the collection process you choose, basic soil sampling procedures should be followed. Consistency is the key to an effective soil-sampling program.
Even if you follow these simple guidelines there may be anomalies associated with soil testing. Don’t get frustrated if some of your soil tests come back different than expected or are inconsistent across space or time.
Soil is a complex combination of physical, mineral, biological and organic residue systems working together. Some unexpected measurements will come along.
Soil sampling is just one component of crop nutrient management. On page 10 of this magazine, MFA agronomist Steve Cromley discusses nutrient recommendation programs.
Dr. Jason Weirich is director of agronomy for MFA Incorporated. See related story on interpreting soil samples HERE.
On page 8 of this issue, Dr. Weirich discussed the importance and techniques for collecting a proper soil sample. The next step in developing a nutrient management plan for your farm is interpreting the soil test results.
Soil testing and nutrient management is not an exact science. Do not get lost in the numbers on your soil test report. Instead, pay attention to the soil test ratings or levels of each nutrient. If a nutrient level is very low on the soil test report there is a high probability that a positive yield response will occur from applying that nutrient to the planned crop. Likewise if a nutrient rating on the soil test is very high there is a low probability that the planned crop will respond to fertilizer applications of that nutrient. Soil tests are more accurate at determining pH, phosphorus and potassium levels then secondary or micronutrient levels. If a secondary or micronutrient is low on the soil test report consider using a plant tissue test to confirm a deficiency. You may also consider on farm trials by applying the secondary or micronutrient in question to a small area in the field.
Once you have determined which nutrients need to be applied to maximize yields, the next step is to determine an application strategy. Most fertilizer recommendations including MFA’s are based upon a build-plus-maintenance approach. The goal of a build-plus-maintenance strategy is to increase low-testing nutrients to optimal levels. If a nutrient level is below optimal the fertilizer recommendation, we’ll recommend more then is being removed by the crop. The idea is to build the soil test level up by applying more than is removed. Once the soil test is in the optimal range the recommendation will be to only apply maintenance or crop removal rates. This strategy works well on land that is owned or in a long term lease.
Another nutrient application strategy is the sufficiency approach. The goal of the sufficiency approach is to apply enough fertilizer to maximize yields in the year of application. This strategy may be appropriate for short-term lease farms. This approach requires annual applications of fertilizer, especially if soil test levels are below optimal. The lower the soil test level the more fertilizer is going to be needed in order to maximize yields. Some factors that will affect fertilizer rates required for optimal yield will be cropping history, soil type, nutrient placement and timing of application. Consult with your local MFA Agronomist to help fine tune nutrient applications.
With the drought and low yields this past year it is going to be tempting to reduce or eliminate fertilizer applications for the 2013 crop. I strongly recommend utilizing your soil test results to determine your nutrient application rates and not 2012 yields. If soil test levels are low, continue to apply recommended rates, you will be ahead of schedule and reach optimal levels sooner. If a nutrient is in the optimal or higher range then you can probably get by without applying a full rate or no fertilizer containing that nutrient.
Soil testing and interpretation is only a portion of a well developed nutrient management plan. A nutrient management plan should consider the 4R best management practices for each field. The 4R nutrient stewardship concept is to apply the right source of plant nutrients at the right rate, at the right time and in the right place. Visit with an MFA Agronomist to help develop a nutrient management plan that is tailored to your farm.
Steve Cromley is senior staff agronomist for MFA Incorporated. See related story about soil testing.
Scouting fields for weeds, disease and insects is one of the best investments you can make to maximize profits. We can expect to see more pests in our crops this year. The mild winter gives concern to the increased insect and weed pressure. I hope you consider evaluating every field in May—and I don’t mean the “windshield” scouting. Make sure evaluations are done thoroughly, it is a bottom-line consideration.
1. Be proactive. A lot of information is available on the Web. It isn’t always the case, but you can often follow in-season situations occurring south of you and know these issues might be heading your way.
2. Know the weather conditions. Mother nature can influence when weeds emerge, disease is present or insects arrive.
3. Be thorough. The standard pattern for walking your field is a W. While you won’t walk every acre, this pattern will allow you to get a uniform sample from across your field. Be consistent in sampling methods. I like to see a sample point for every 2 to 4 acres.
4. Keep good records. These records can help you make a prescription for your field. The notes will also help you make decisions next year. Before evaluating a field, know field history, cropping history, crop rotation, yield potential, pesticide application type, rate and history, variety/hybrid planted, planting date, planting rate, row width, tillage system, tillage timing, seed treatments, weather patterns, fertilizer and lime rates, previous pest problems, and other agronomic factors.
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