Year in and year out, soybean growers across Missouri and surrounding states have no shortage of pests. In 2019, in addition to normal challenges, weed control was more difficult due to compressed windows for timely herbicide application. On the other hand, insect and disease pressure was lower than expected. That’s not to say that many growers did not benefit from measures taken to control insects and diseases. However, 2019 may be one to remember due to an emerging threat that gained a foothold in our area: white mold.
For two consecutive years, this fungal disease has been detected in northwest and central Missouri. Perhaps the most serious late-season soybean disease in much of the upper Midwest, white mold proliferates in cool, moist conditions, dense canopies and high-yield environments. Yield losses are estimated at 2 to 5 bushels for every 10% of plants infected with the disease. White mold infections can commonly exceed 50% in areas where the disease is well established. It overwinters as sclerotia in the soil and persists for long periods, making crop rotation ineffective at reducing disease potential.
Scouting for white mold is more difficult than foliar diseases. The first sign of white mold development is not on the plant but on the soil. Overwintering sclerotia develop into mushroom-like structures called apothecia. These structures appear at or near canopy on the soil and produce spores that infect the soybean plant.
The second sign of development is lesions below the soybean nodes where white, fluffy mycelial growth occurs, giving white mold its name. The mold appears after spores from the apothecia infect the soybean plants through the flowers.
The last symptoms are the most visible—wilting of soybean leaves and plant death—but these issues show up far too late to indicate the need for treatment.
Being primarily a stem disease, white mold is difficult to control with fungicides. Disease hiding deep within the soybean canopy is difficult to reach. Further compounding the issue is the fact that many fungicides that control foliar diseases are ineffective against white mold, making product selection critical. Common fungicide practices to control white mold are a triazole application at R1 (early flowering) followed by another application at R3.
To ensure fungicide applications are effective, first understand that not all triazoles are created equal. Certain products are much more effective against white mold than others. Selecting a fungicide active ingredient is just as important as choosing the class of chemistry. Including the herbicide Cobra at the R1-R2 application of fungicide will improve white mold control. Cobra activates systemic acquired resistance in soybeans, which means it sensitizes the plants to white mold and allows them to trigger defense mechanisms quicker.
Other management practices for white mold often have to be incorporated with chemical control to be effective. Chief among those is canopy management. While lush, dense canopies provide several benefits for weed control, they provide an ideal home for white mold to develop and a physical barrier between the disease and applied fungicides. Fields with known histories of white mold are best suited for 30-inch rows, allowing fungicides to cover the stems more effectively and air flow to slow white mold progression.
Similarly, variety selection becomes important, not just for plant resistance but also plant architecture. While bush-type varieties are often considered more desirable than pole-type soybeans, the opposite is true if white mold management is a driving factor. A pole variety provides fewer branches, more upright growth and less canopy cover.
Prevention is one of the best management plans for white mold, especially without widespread infestations. Sclerotia can be transported from field to field, by tillage equipment and combines, in residue and in soil. Thorough equipment cleaning between fields may be worthwhile.
While we don’t know to what extent we will have to deal with white mold in the future, we do know it now resides in Missouri. Going forward, control starts with a good integrated pest management plan, considering all practices and the threat level of a particular field. It’s paramount to understand the biology of the pest to include cultural, biological and chemical strategies at the appropriate time. Our biggest challenge as new pests develop is to understand the limitation of our current control systems and determine when something new needs to be incorporated. Increasing understanding of white mold is the first necessary step
Farmers care for the land because it cares for them, and stewardship is even more ingrained in multigenerational farms. When making decisions on our farm, I always default to what I remember about my dad. He used no-till back in the ’80s and ’90s. He ensured there were areas for quail to thrive on the edges of the fields where he and I could chase them in the fall. Agriculture today doesn’t look the same, and many growers are farming acres without certainty they will be farming them next year, much less the next generation. As land ownership has changed, around 41% of U.S. farmland is farmed by someone other than the owner. In some regions, the figure can grow up to 80%.
Conservation practices are typically more numerous and easier to execute on our own farms. Why is that? The one decision-maker doesn’t have to convince others that the ideas are sound. With leased land, there is a level of communication and personal relationships to maintain in the farm decision process. Human nature is to avoid conflict, and many growers are afraid to take management decisions requiring a financial investment to landowners. They’re afraid the landowner will balk at the cost and rent the land to someone else. On the flip side, many landowners look to their growers for insight on what needs to happen on their farm. That need for advice can get ignored in all the conflict avoidance.
The solution is to form a partnership based on mutual goals. During the process of leasing land, look for not just the farm itself but for someone who aligns with your priorities and management style. If you as a grower typically manage a certain way, convey that to the landowner and be sure they are comfortable with your style. Conversely, if landowners want a grower to no-till and carefully watch soil loss on their farms, try to choose someone who already does these practices on their other acres. If you are expecting someone to do things differently on your farm from the rest of his operation, it may not be a good fit.
Having a written lease is essential. You can only be sure you are protected financially if you have something in writing that explicitly conveys who is responsible for what. We wouldn’t join together in a corporate partnership with nothing in writing, so why would we do so for a farm lease agreement? It’s a great opportunity to force an in-person meeting at least once a year to discuss farm management decisions. During these conversations, come prepared with soil tests, yield maps, etc., to discuss fertility inputs or the need for edge-of-field practices. Show the landowner how you have invested in the farm and how you can help maintain and improve production over the next few seasons. As a landowner, ask questions about production and what areas are difficult for your grower to access or turn a profit.
Be sure you form a working partnership. Data suggests that the longer the partnership, the better the stewardship activities on that farm. Productive discussions from growers and landowners ensure you are making the farm more profitable for both parties. Some areas may need significant fertility builds to achieve top yields needed to turn a profit in the current ag economy. Work with landowners and explain that some of those nutrients are banked in the soil, which belongs to them. To solidify your credibility, involve a third party such as MFA to write a nutrient management plan or analyze previous soil test results.
The same goes for field edges or other unproductive areas where those nutrient inputs aren’t likely to pay off. Involve someone who can guide the landowner through the process to obtain financial assistance to convert acreage to wildlife habitat or grazing land. Be sure to offer to help with the implementation of new permanent seedings as some landowners may not have the necessary equipment. This is truly a win-win as the landowner gets income from those acres, and the lessee no longer pays rent on acres that don’t turn a profit.
Don’t hesitate to contact me to discuss how MFA can help build partnerships with landowners and promote stewardship of working land in our trade territory.
What do you think of when you hear the term, “nutrient stewardship?” Increased regulations? Reduced cost? More efficient fertility? Or does it simply mean “doing the right thing?”
This past year, MFA offered a nitrogen tool that modeled nitrogen loss and helped producers and agronomists make educated decisions on an acre-by-acre basis. Usage of the tool grew from 30,000 acres in 2018 to 160,000 acres in 2019. Talk about a year to launch a tool for nitrogen loss! We had record rainfall at the wrong time. We experienced prolonged periods of saturated soils that ultimately caused us to lose higher-than-normal amounts of nitrogen in some areas.
What did we gain from this tool?
While this tool does allow us to export VRT (variable rate technology) recommendations to load in the spreader, what we found was that nitrogen modeling gave us some insights to soil type, production practices and weather—to name a few. This model uses several layers to predict nitrogen loss. While the tool isn’t the gospel, it does start the conversation around nutrient stewardship, allowing us to make sure we are taking care of the crop while not overapplying or underapplying nitrogen.
What are the results?
The combines started rolling the first week of September in our southern area and will continue harvesting for a while. We expect to see a greater NUE (nitrogen use efficiency) where the model’s recommendations were followed, but time will tell. The ultimate determining factor will be ROI. What can this tool and many others do to the bottom line for your operation? We have looked at and tested these and many others throughout the past couple seasons, but never in a year with this much moisture and with saturated soils for this long. These are some of the questions we will address as we collect data from our research sites.
What other nitrogen issues are we facing?
Every spring I get asked if we need to protect our anhydrous with a stabilizer. And the answer is, “yes.” This year was a great case study for why you need to protect NH3 with an effective stabilizer. I’ve been in fields that had spring-applied anhydrous ammonia with and without the nitrogen stabilizer, N-Serve, and, boy, a visual difference was apparent. The truth will come when combines roll across the field. Same with top dress. We need to make sure we are protecting our urea with N-Guard, which contains nBPT to combat volatilization, or by using Super-U, which has both nBPT and dicyandiamide (DCD) to protect nitrogen above and below ground.
Other factors to consider?
I’ve traveled across our trade area and have seen fields that look great next to fields that have plenty of cover—from cover crops to just natural cover of weeds, mainly waterhemp and marestail. This will provide many other challenges that I will discuss another time. However, one topic that I do want to cover is the amount of erosion I’ve witnessed this year. While we all know this wasn’t a normal year and hope we don’t see this again, we can learn from these challenges. Some of the observations that I took away was the color of water runoff from many of the fields. I had the opportunity to see fields with and without cover crops, tillage versus no-till, etc. There a big difference. Where cover crops were planted and no-till was used, there was little to no color in the water leaving the field, while tilled fields were another story. On the other hand, tilled fields with cover crops still had loss of soil, but it was significantly reduced compared to the no-cover tilled fields. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out what needs to be done.
When developing a nutrient stewardship plan, keep in mind it is a living plan that will need to be adjusted when weather events, crop failures or other obstacles get thrown your way. Reach out to your local MFA to make a plan today.
If you are familiar at all with agronomy and read the words “Nutrient Management Plan,” you probably picture a huge binder full of government documents—a bunch of boring tables and graphs that don’t mean anything to 99% of people who try to read it. With precision technology and the ability to process data in ways that show what’s happening on the farm, those days are over.
There are many benefits to sitting down and making a plan, whether it’s fertility or other aspects of crop production. Planning allows you to account for all the steps necessary to take your production in a positive direction. The following are environmental risks that can be mitigated and averted by planning and following a nutrient management plan for both crop and pasture production.
Managing N, P, K, micronutrients and pH. In agronomics, high yields depend on matching fertility inputs to crop removals and ensuring the proper amount of nutrients are banked in the soil. It turns out that areas of high productivity also pose a much lower risk environmentally than areas of poor fertility. The reason is simple—if high yields are being attained, then the plants are healthy and quickly taking up any fertilizer placed there. In areas that return low yields due to a lack of soil nutrients or other extraneous factors, plants aren’t as ready to uptake applied nutrients. This leaves those nutrients vulnerable to loss via leaching or binding to soil particles and being washed away. Applied nutrients must also be available to the plant, which is why balancing soil pH is critical to the success of any plan. If nutrients are in adequate supply, but the soil is too acidic to allow uptake, they are vulnerable to loss. Lack of plant growth also impacts residue on the soil surface. The less residue, the more erosion. Rain events can move more soil in areas of low fertility, resulting in even more nutrient losses. The best thing we can do is keep our most productive areas productive and build fertility in sub-par areas.
Correcting areas of high soil-test phosphorus. Missouri has a robust livestock industry, and where there is—or was—livestock, there is manure. Repeated applications of manure on feedlots, pastures and areas of high animal concentration can lead to high soil-test phosphorus values. Because phosphorus binds to soil particles, excess P levels are prone to loss from runoff. When areas of high P are identified, it’s important to mitigate erosion and initiate changes in a fertility plan to lower risk of nutrient loading in our waterways. Again, maintaining the top layer of soil on the field is critical to minimizing nutrient loss.
Having a plan for nitrogen. Many folks talk about nitrogen planning, making split applications, using inhibitors and similar practices but fail to follow through in implementation. All of these things used in conjunction really do pay big dividends in how much total N gets applied to the field, how much of that N is plant-available at the right time, and, the most environmentally important, how much is left at the end of the season. Since nitrogen is generally paid for, there’s certainly benefit to making sure we hit the right target and don’t leave a significant amount in the field. This can be done by making sure we account for inputs from all fertilizer products, know our soil and consider any losses. A written plan can keep you on track for knowing how to steward N properly.
Combining all these aspects of nutrient management planning can make your farm not just more environmentally friendly but also significantly more efficient. Grid sampling and planning through the Nutri-Track program is a great avenue. Recently, around 25 MFA personnel have become certified as technical service providers, which enables them to write Nutrient Management Plans for USDA-NRCS financial assistance. For a plan to get financial assistance, an EQIP (Environmental Quality Incentive Program) application must be completed with your local NRCS office during the fall signup. Our MFA technical service providers are experts in managing your fertilizer inputs to help meet yield goals and to put together production plans covering the entire soil-test cycle.
If you are interested ways to maximize your fertilizer investment and make your farm less environmentally sensitive through nutrient management, contact me or any member of MFA’s Precision Agronomy team.
Producers who have suffered severe losses as a result of recent flooding may be eligible for assistance under the Emergency Conservation Program (ECP) administered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) in these Missouri counties: Boone, Callaway, Carroll, Chariton, Clark, Clay, Cooper, Daviess, Gentry, Grundy, Howard, Jackson, Lafayette, Lewis, Lincoln, Linn, Livingston, Marion, Mercer, Moniteau, Pike, Ray, Saline, Sullivan, St. Charles and St. Louis.
A producer qualifying for ECP assistance may receive cost-share levels up to 75 percent of the eligible cost of restoration measures. The 2018 Farm Bill authorizes socially disadvantaged and beginning farmers and ranchers to earn up to 90 percent cost share of the total allowable costs.
The following types of measures may be eligible:
• Removing debris from farmland
• Grading, shaping or releveling severely damaged farmland
• Restoring permanent fences
• Restoring conservation structures and other similar installations
Producers should contact their local FSA county office to request assistance until Aug. 30, 2019. For more information, visit www.fsa.usda.gov.
In July, USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) announced the availability of $217.5 million dedicated to funding conservation easements on certain lands damaged by flooding and other natural disasters. Funds are made available through the floodplain easement component of the Emergency Watershed Protection Program. Missouri, Arkansas and Iowa are among the 11 states currently identified for funding.
In this voluntary program, eligible applicants agree to sell a permanent conservation easement to the United States through NRCS. Compensation is based on the value of the easement as determined by an appraisal or market analysis. These easements may occur on public or private agricultural land or residential properties damaged by flooding and natural disasters. NRCS will work to restore the easement to its natural floodplain condition.
Individuals and communities in any state are encouraged to contact their local NRCS field offices for more information on these floodplain easement opportunities or visit www.nrcs.usda.gov.
Today's Farmer is published 9 times annually. Printed issues arrive monthly except combined issues for June/July, August/September and December/January. Subscriptions are available only in the United States.
If you would like to begin or renew a print subscription, CLICK HERE and go to our shop. We are proud to offer the subscription for only $15 per year.