Crops

Crop protection plans can’t be an afterthought

The 2022 growing season is just around the corner, and herbicide planning is more important than ever this year. In the previous issue of Today’s Farmer, MFA Director of Agronomy Doug Spaunhorst touched on potential supply chain challenges with some common herbicide products. In particular, supply looks to be tight for widely used products such as glyphosate, glufosinate and 2,4-D. There will likely be situations where we need to carefully look at a field’s weed spectrum to identify the need for these products and find alternative herbicides.

While glyphosate and glufosinate are used to control susceptible weeds that are already emerged, in 2022 it will be critical to prevent weed emergence from occurring in the first place. In addition to using these types of herbicides in our first pass, it will be equally important to use residual chemistry in our second pass for continued weed prevention. If we have successfully prevented new weed emergence and have a clean field three weeks after the first pass, we can apply the next round of residual herbicides and eliminate the need for herbi­cides that only control emerged weeds.

To determine the correct herbi­cides that will be required, thorough and timely scouting is essential ahead of both the burndown pass and the in-crop application. Many products used for the first herbicide application ahead of corn already contain active ingredients that have excellent activity on broadleaf weeds, including those that are difficult to control.

However, this is not necessarily the case for grass weeds. On the bright side, many common grass weeds can be controlled with a low­er rate of glyphosate than needed for broadleaf weed control.

For instance, giant foxtail up to 20 inches tall can be controlled at a 75% rate of most glyphosate products when compared to rates needed to control many broadleaf weeds. While MFA will never rec­ommend reducing rates required by label, this is an example that would reduce glyphosate usage while still using a full labeled rate to control a target weed.

Newer soybean herbicide traits offer additional opportunities to re­duce the use of herbicides that are likely to be in tight supply. While older formulations of 2,4-D may be hard to come by, availability of Enlist products looks favorable. In addition, there is no waiting period between Enlist applications and planting of Enlist-tolerant soybeans as there is with older 2,4-D for­mulations. In soybeans with Xtend or XtendFlex traits, Xtendimax or Engenia herbicides also provide excellent broadleaf weed activity.

Regardless of herbicide-tolerance traits, there are other options for grass control in soybeans. Herbi­cides commonly used in soybeans to control glyphosate-tolerant vol­unteer corn also control most grass weeds. These products are known as FOPs and DIMs due to the active ingredient names and can be used as a glyphosate alternative strictly for grass control in soybeans. In addition, corn hybrids with the Enlist trait will be tolerant to the FOP family of herbicides. Products such as Assure II may be used for in-crop grass weed control in corn with this trait.

By the time we enter the next growing season, there will likely be several more challenges related to crop protection supplies. Growers should have a cropping plan that includes residual herbicides to provide protection from weeds that have a history of showing up in each field. Pair that with frequent and thorough scouting to identify emerged weed species.

By following these practices, we can develop recommendations to provide proper weed control and prevention while helping to avoid potential supply issues. Your MFA manager, key account managers and local agronomists are here to help develop these plans and deliver weed-control solutions for your farm.

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Stay ahead of weeds with fall applications

It’s hard to believe harvest season is nearly over and timing for fall herbicide application is now front and center. I was hoping the supply chain issues we faced earlier this year would be resolved and product orders and anticipated arrival dates would have reverted to “normal,” although who knows what the definition of “normal” is anymore? Unfortunately, several indicators have signaled to us that acquiring products in 2022 may be equally or more difficult than what we expe­rienced in 2021. That’s why I want to emphasize the importance of having a couple of crop protection plans in place. Products you used in the past may either price you out of the market or require you to call an audible before spraying due to tight or empty inventory.

Successful audibles in the game of football, called at the line of scrimmage, have been planned and rehearsed with all players focused on the routes ahead and which op­ponents to block. The outcome of a well-planned and rehearsed audible called in the field is often no dif­ferent at the farm level. I say “often no different” because we all know how unforgiving and unpredictable Mother Nature and government decisions can be at times.

So what can we expect for 2021 fall herbicide supply? We know products that contain glyphosate and 2,4-D will be in tighter supply. It’s fair to encourage folks to order what they need for this growing season and not what they may need for the next two or three years. No one wants a repeat of the toilet paper debacle we faced during the beginning of the pandemic in 2020.

Herbicide applications in the fall are a great way to stay ahead of the game and control winter annual weeds that emerge during and after harvest. A couple things to keep in mind when deciding on fall chem­ical products. Historically, glypho­sate and 2,4-D have been econom­ical and effective options for many difficult-to-control winter annual weed species. These products have been applied across a large portion of acres in our trade territory in the past. If you have access to glypho­sate and 2,4-D, I would direct use of this mixture towards fields with heavy weed populations first. Most growers know which fields on their farm are typically weedier than others. Start there.

Aside from glyphosate and 2,4-D, there are other fall herbicide options to consider in fields where corn will be planted the following year. Many of these products have residual activity where glyphosate does not and 2,4-D is limited. These fall herbicides include Basis/ Resolve Q, Resolve SG and Princep.

In fields where soybeans will be planted the following spring, several herbicides that contain Authority can be applied in the fall. Other products such as Canopy/ Canopy EX, Classic, Envive, Fierce XLT, Pursuit, Sharpen and Synchro­ny XP are also labeled in the fall for spring-planted soybeans.

Some of the previously listed herbicides are, or have, active ingre­dients that inhibit acetolactate syn­thase (ALS) and can persist longer in soils where the pH is greater than 7. Be cautious of the maximum annual use rate on ALS chemistries in the spring if you have fields with pH values in the mid to upper 7s.

If you are unsure if you will be planting corn or soybeans next spring, there are still many op­tions that can be applied in the fall. Anthem Flex, Authority MTZ, Autumn Super, Elevore, Express, Fierce MTZ, Gramoxone, Harmony, Kyber, Quelex, Volunteer, Metribuz­in and Valor EZ can be used in the fall where either corn or soybeans will be planted the following spring. Some products may need to be tank-mixed for optimal weed control. Most of these products, if they have much grass activity, will need to be applied to weeds smaller than the 4- to 8-inch-tall grasses we have controlled with glyphosate in the past.

Generally speaking, fields with heavy winter weed pressure are better candidates for fall herbicide applications than fields with low weed pressure. Adding residual herbicides in the fall generally translates into a cleaner seedbed but should not replace a spring residual application. By springtime, the concentration of herbicide in the soil solution will unlikely be at concentrations lethal to prob­lematic emerging species such as waterhemp, Palmer amaranth and horseweed.

With all the uncertainty in the crop protection market, I cannot stress enough the importance of having a cropping plan for the 2021-2022 season. I can assure you MFA’s crop protection team is diligently working to meet the needs of our customers, and our agronomy team is equipped and ready to service our locations and member-owners as crop protection needs continue to evolve.

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Shortages of P and K can limit production of your crop

What is your P and K fertilizer program? If you’re basing your rate on what you have always done, have you ever questioned why you apply what you do? It’s pretty easy to get stuck in a rut and use the same fertility program year after year without looking at it more closely, as long as yields keep increasing.

If this sounds familiar, we should talk.

The basics of soil fertility haven’t changed much over the years, but that doesn’t mean we should take it for granted. Our plants are factories that need a certain amount of nutri­ents to operate at peak capacity, just like an automotive manufacturing plant. When something is in short supply—whether that is phospho­rus or a computer chip—both types of plants are going to throttle back production until they can get all the materials they need. How do we avoid this shutdown? In simple terms, it’s just a matter of under­standing supply and demand.

Let’s start with supply. The vast majority of nutrients are supplied to the plant from the soil solution. While the soil can store significantly more nutrients than our plants will demand in a single season, those nutrients are not all readily avail­able for uptake. Many nutrients are bound tightly with other com­pounds in the soil. They are essen­tially in long-term storage, which means that it takes a significant amount of time for them to arrive in soil solution for the plant to use. As the plant takes nutrients from the soil solution, replacement nu­trients are transferred from “storage” to restock the system. The processes that facilitate that movement are not instant.

Soil testing can help us manage and understand this process. Many diverse and complicated factors control how much of the total quantity of nutrients contained in the soil are available for plant uptake, making it nearly impossible to estimate what is readily available for a plant to use. Soil testing ap­proaches this problem in a different way. Chemicals are used to flush nutrients out of the soil sample, and then the nutrients that are re­leased are measured. The chemicals and methods are designed to closely mimic how a root would extract nutrients from the soil. By compar­ing how yield responds with the addition of readily plant available fertilizers versus the known soil test value, we can determine where the soil is providing enough nutrients for complete plant growth.

Again, a soil test is not necessarily an inventory of all the nutrients contained in the soil, it’s more like the amount of nutrients that are in soil solution ready for plant uptake. To relate it to the factory model, it tells us how many computer chips are actually sitting in the factory that we can use to build pickup trucks today.

If the soil test tells us about nutrient supply, why does demand matter? Demand tells us how much fertility is hauled away in a grain truck or a bale of hay. We use that number to understand what we need to put it back into inventory for the next season. Demand is fair­ly easy to calculate. You just need the nutrient concentration in the crop and the yield. It may surprise you to know that nutrient concen­tration is actually easy information to find. Many of the crops we grow are used in livestock feed, and much work has gone into analyzing that feed for its nutrient concen­trations to create a balanced ration. For the most part, the nutrient con­centrations we use for crop removal estimates are based on long-term averages from feed information.

Yield can come from several different sources, whether it is your long-term yield average, yield goal or actual yield data. We can use any of those numbers along with the nutrient concentration to arrive at the total nutrient removal we can expect.

Admittedly, it’s easy to ignore your fertility program and just do what you’ve always done without think­ing about it. But like most decisions on the farm, it pays to understand how fertility is going to affect your plants in the field. If they face a shortage, it doesn’t matter what else you do. Those shortages are going to limit production.

As you build your fertility plan this year, I encourage you to figure out your supply and demand to ensure plant nutrition doesn’t limit your production. Reach out to your local MFA if we can help you in this process.

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Invest in P and K instead of Fe this fall

Supplies of toilet paper and hand sanitizer aren’t the only things negatively affected by COVID-19. Tractors, combines, farm equipment and pickup trucks are also hard to find these days. Many industries are facing a lack of labor and raw mate­rials, an issue projected to continue through at least 2022. Disruptions all along the supply chain have caused shortages of steel, plastics, microchips and tires, and many suppliers are facing a labor crunch because of the pandemic.

As a result, the tractor supply in North America is the tightest in 18 years, and precision equipment suppliers have been encouraging early orders to avoid delays and shortages of guidance systems and planter control systems. Some companies are so far behind that their dealers were taking orders for planters for the 2023 crop season in June of this year.

Not 2022. 2023.

This got me to thinking: At the end of the year, instead of invest­ing in iron (Fe) for your farming operation, why not invest in fertility (P and K)?

As a precision manager for MFA Districts 3 and 6 on the east side of Missouri, I help a team of precision specialists manage our Nutri-Track high-yielding fertility management system. We use 2.5-acre grid sam­ples to develop plant food recom­mendations that allow our growers to improve yield and be more efficient with their fertilizer dollar. Nutri-Track’s variable-rate fertility recommendations are developed specifically for each operation on an acre-by-acre basis.

Much of that work is done in the fall. Many soil samples are taken, and many variable-rate prescrip­tions are developed and applied, but we should—and could—be doing more.

Applying phosphorus and potas­sium in the fall between the end of harvest and the first freeze will re­plenish essential nutrients removed from the field and ensure they are in place for next year’s crop. We all know that compacted springs are beginning to feel like the rule instead of the exception. Widening the window for P and K application and moving acres to be fertilized from spring to fall can help lessen your stress in the busy season. Phosphorus and potassium applied in the fall, along with sulfur and zinc, will be ready to go to work for you in the spring.

It’s true that MFA’s extensive infrastructure gives us the ability to apply a lot of product in a short time during the spring rush. Plant foods are often delivered to the fer­tilizer plant, and then immediately loaded on to a truck and applied to a field within hours. That doesn’t mean, however, that bottlenecks don’t happen. Much of our dry fertilizer comes in on river barg­es. When rivers get out of shape due to spring floods (or a bridge in Memphis develops a crack and threatens to fall into the Mississippi, like we saw this past spring) getting phosphorus and potassium can be a challenge.

If you apply fertilizer in the fall, you won’t need to wait until the spring weather cooperates or worry about barge shipments being de­layed. There are many other reasons why fall applications are a good investment. Soil moisture is gener­ally lower in the fall, lessening the risk of soil compaction compared to wet spring soils. Equipment and applicators at your local MFA are usually more available in the fall. And fall fertilizer prices tend to be lower than spring prices.

While I’ve mostly focused on P and K here, fall application of an­hydrous ammonia is also common in much of our trade territory. This is a good practice, as long as you are also planning an in-season top-dress application and protect­ing that nitrogen with a product such as N-Serve or Centuro. These actually work to protect against N loss instead of just claiming to—but that’s a subject for a different day.

To me, it boils down to this: in most instances, on most soils, there is no good reason not to apply phosphorus and potassium in the fall. It can give you a leg up in the spring, provide some much-needed flexibility and allow you to alleviate some of the stress of having a lot to do in a short window.

New tractors, combines and planters may be hard to find right now, but fertility is one purchase you can always count on. So this fall, when you’re thinking about the investments to make in your farming operation, forget about the iron (Fe) and focus on the fertility (P and K).

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Waging war against pesky pigweed

Each growing season, produc­ers face multiple challenges when trying to plant their crops. Too much or not enough rain. Changes in chemical trade names and new premixes. New equipment, software and “smart” technologies to consid­er. On a positive note, commodity prices for grain and cereal crops have been on the rise, a relieving tune when compared to prices over the last seven years. I hope this is a good year for our growers’ pocket­books.

Weeds, on the other hand, care little about market trends and capitalize on our missed opportuni­ties and periods when stress levels are high. The pigweeds—Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, namely— have made headlines and likely are the focal point of many conversa­tions among growers and retailers in recent years. A keyword search for Palmer amaranth and water­hemp on the North Central Weed Science Society website revealed 30% of its published poster and paper abstracts in 2020 included one or both of these weeds, which means significant research contin­ues on both species. I don’t really see that trend changing anytime soon. Note that the members of the North Central Weed Science Society not only include Missouri but also Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dako­ta, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming and the Canadian Prov­ince of Ontario, and those search results indicate that these weeds are significant pests in many areas outside the Show-Me State.

Populations of waterhemp have become resistant to herbicides that contain the active ingredients glyphosate and lactofen. Some of the first reported cases date back to around 2008. More recent surveys (2015-2017) conducted by Dr. Kevin Bradley’s team at the University of Missouri in Columbia show the majority of waterhemp collected from Missouri fields were resistant to chlorimuron and glyphosate, and one field had plants not controlled with 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorimuron, fomesafen, glyphosate or mesotrione.

Palmer amaranth doesn’t seem to be as widespread as waterhemp in Missouri but certainly has a foothold farther south. For most of 2020—and at least the first half of 2021—the world has focused on mitigating the spread of COVID-19 and its lethal variants, but at the border of our southeast trade territory another issue has arisen: reports of Palmer amaranth control failure with glufosinate in two northeast counties in Arkansas. As a weed scientist by training, this saddened me to read. My intent is not to scare or signify the fight is hopeless but to inform readers of what is going on in our backyards. We are in a battle to isolate these populations as much as possible to prevent pollen and seed spread and to protect the technologies that we have left.

Knowing what we know about these species, we still have options. Protecting corn and soybeans from weed competition four to six weeks after emergence is necessary to minimize yield loss. Soil residu­al herbicides applied at planting followed by in-season overlapping residuals, including a Group 15 herbicide (such as Anthem, Cinch, Dual II Magnum, Outlook, War­rant and Zidua), have shown to be effective in managing these species before they emerge from the soil. Add an effective post-emergence herbicide (tailored to the soybean trait platform) for those weeds not controlled pre-emergence.

For various reasons, many Mis­souri farmers have planted cover crops. Fortunately, high biomass cover crops such as cereal rye make it difficult for small-seeded weeds to establish and penetrate through the residue layer. Sufficient closure of the seed furrow is critical to maximize soil-to-seed contact and achieve uniform crop emergence. Some challenges exist with cover crops, no doubt, and may not be suited for areas where soils poorly drain. Terminating the cover crop when it’s larger may prevent soil residual herbicides from contacting the soil. Soil-applied herbicides must be in the soil solution to be taken up by germinating seeds. However, planting conditions may deteriorate when cereal rye is termi­nated early because the once living cover crop is no longer extracting moisture from the soil.

Going forward, I’m optimistic that technology and adapting our production practices to exploit weaknesses in the plant’s biology will aid in managing these prob­lematic weed species. Visit with the agronomists at your MFA affiliate or feel free to contact me if you want more info on weed-control options for this year’s crop.

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