Native grasses can provide pasture peace of mind
This winter’s weather has been hard on pastures. Between weaning calves and feeding hay, we have several areas on our farm that need to be rehabbed or reclaimed to get ready for the spring growing season. Many producers— myself included—rely on cool-season grass or summer annuals for a hay crop. If you haven’t started to consider what to plant in those fields, now is the time.
As you’re making those decisions, take a look at native warm-season grass (NWSG). This forage comes back every year, requires less fertilizer and produces tonnage that rivals any perennial or annual you can plant. Most folks are aware of the benefits of NWSG for grazing opportunities, but these grasses can make a great hay crop as well.
The key to having a good NWSG field is proper establishment and proper management. The first step is to obtain soil samples to make sure that any necessary soil amendments can be applied prior to spring planting. Before planting, the current forage needs to be killed with a non-selective herbicide. Also, just prior to or shortly after planting, I recommend spraying a pre-emergent herbicide such as Panoramic with the active ingredient Imazapic. This herbicide was formulated to suppress weeds and cool-season grasses but allows NWSG to germinate and grow during establishment.
NWSG is typically drilled with a native grass drill in the spring from April to June, depending on your location. Plant into a clean seed bed no deeper than ¼ inch. I tell folks that you want to see about half of the seed you are planting laying on top of the ground. The two biggest reasons that NWSG plantings fail is planting too deep or the seedlings being out-competed by weeds. Once planted, keep a close eye on weed competition through the summer and be prepared to spray the proper herbicide to reduce competition. Be sure to follow the herbicide label to prevent injury to NWSG seedlings.
Managing NWSG can be problematic for producers who are not familiar with it. Remember that the first growing season will be dedicated to allowing the NWSG to grow, and no hay harvest should be made. Depending on the vigor of the stand, the second year a single hay cutting may be made.
After the establishment years, try to avoid cutting NWSG for hay until the end of June. Keep in mind that if you are using state or federal cost-share funds, this date may change due to program policy. This start date accomplishes two things. First, it allows ground-nesting birds an opportunity to have a successful hatch. Second, it allows the plants to reach optimum quantity and still produce good-quality hay.
For the health and longevity of the NWSG stand, do not cut it too late in the growing season—generally after Sept. 15 or about 30-45 days prior to frost. This allows the plants to put their next year’s growing reserves into their root system. If you cut it too late, you interrupt this process and weaken the stand for the following year.
You may be saying, “I have to wait two years before I can potentially get my first cutting?” This is correct, but you have to look at the long-term value in this grass. It can produce up to 4 tons per acre of forage. Its optimum time to cut is in the summer when you are typically not dodging rain showers to put up hay like most folks who are cutting cool-season grasses. It requires less fertilizer than fescue and doesn’t produce ergovaline like fescue that restricts blood flow in cattle. If you remember 2012 and 2018, when fescue dried up due to drought, NWSG was actively growing, and producers were able to get two cuttings off those fields. Not only is NWSG a great forage, it is great insurance.
If you are interested in planting native warm-season grass on your farm or potential cost-share programs available, contact me or any of your local conservation offices for more information.
Landry Jones joined MFA as conservationLandry Jones joined MFA as conservation grazing specialist in southwest Missouri in December 2019 after more than 12 years with the Missouri Department of Conservation, where he managed both public and private lands. Landry lives in Polk County, Mo., with his wife of 10 years and their two daughters.
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