An emerging threat

Written by Allison Jenkins on .


Kevin Moore hoped he was wrong.

In July 2016, the MFA Crop-Trak consultant found an excessive number of northern corn rootworm beetles in a northwest Missouri field. They weren’t supposed to be there. The corn field had been planted in soybeans the previous year, and crop rotation is traditionally the cure for rootworm infestations.

“It was definitely cause for alarm,” Moore said. “Rootworm is usually only an issue in continuous corn. If the rootworm beetles lay their eggs in a corn field that will be rotated, they don’t have anything to eat when it’s planted in soybeans the next year, and they die.”

His discovery indicated otherwise. Moore suspected a phenomenon called “extended diapause,” a genetic adaptation that allows rootworm eggs to survive through two winters. When this occurs, the rootworm beetles lay eggs during a corn season, those eggs lie dormant in the subsequent soybean crop and then hatch in the next corn rotation. They feed on corn roots as larvae and emerge as adult beetles, and the cycle starts again. Left unchecked, rootworms can cause substantial yield loss and standability issues.

“Extended diapause rootworms have been found to the north and west of us, but it’s never been confirmed in Missouri until now,” Moore said. “Adult beetles can fly, so we believe some of those with that genetic trait have moved this way.”

Two years later, his suspicions have been validated through the work of MFA’s Agronomy team in partnership with the USDA Agricultural Research Service.

“We collected 4,000 beetles, brought them back to the lab, fed them well and gave them a place to lay eggs,” said Bruce Hibbard, USDA-ARS research entomologist in Columbia, Mo. “We gradually cooled down those eggs over time and over-wintered them at 47 degrees Fahrenheit—just a little bit warmer than refrigerator temperature. It’s genetically pre-determined that they have to experience cold before they can hatch.”

A typical diapause, or period before eggs hatch, is one winter. In an extended-diapause situation, rootworm eggs must endure two or more winters before hatching. After the eggs went through one lab-simulated “winter,” 44 percent hatched. The remaining eggs were subjected to a second “winter” in 2017, with a hatch of 12.4 percent. Hibbard said those results prove that a significant number of the sampled beetles exhibited an extended-diapause trait.

“The genetics are complex, so it doesn’t mean that every egg will have this trait,” he explained, “but enough eggs hatched after two winters to confirm that this problem is here, at least in the location where we collected those beetles.”

Now that those initial corn fields have been rotated through soybeans and back to corn, Moore and other Crop-Trak consultants are methodically scouting this summer to see if there are more rootworms with the extended-diapause trait. They’re focusing on Atchison, Nodaway, Holt and Worth counties in Missouri as well as Page County, Iowa.

“We’re taking root samples in the areas that had a large amount of beetles two years ago, and then we’re also taking samples from bordering counties to track their movement,” Moore explained. “We also set up traps for adult beetles to get a better understanding of their density and movement. It’s something we need to keep monitoring so we can help protect our crops. If we see numbers that are alarming, we’re certainly going to let growers know that they need to take action.”

In samples taken this summer, Moore and the Crop-Trak team have additional evidence of extended diapause in northern corn rootworms. MFA and USDA are working together to confirm that assumption and determine the severity of the problem.

“If our lab work shows higher percentage of eggs start hatching after two winters, then Missouri corn growers are going to have to consider managing for northern corn rootworm,” Hibbard said. “With 12.4 percent, maybe they can tolerate what those rootworms eat and not have to do anything. But if they start to see their fields laying flat, they’re going to have to treat all their corn in the future—but maybe not yet.”  

If crop rotation is no longer effective against corn rootworm, there are other options, said MFA Senior Staff Agronomist Jason Worthington. However, there is no “rescue” treatment.

“The most effective plans must be proactively developed along with hybrid selection,” he said. “The two real options a grower has to control rootworm are Bt corn traits with multiple effective proteins such as SmartStax, and granular in-furrow soil insecticides such as Force or Aztec. Both of these control options require planning ahead.”

Hybrids with Bt traits utilize a gene from naturally occurring soil bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, that kills larvae of rootworm. Just like weeds have developed resistance to herbicides, however, the western corn rootworm has developed resistance to the Bt trait, which was introduced in 2003. MFA agronomists are watching for pests that exhibit Bt tolerance in the field, and Hibbard and his team are testing the rootworm beetle samples for susceptibility to Bt in the USDA-ARS lab.

“We suspect that Bt resistance to northern corn rootworm doesn’t exist in Missouri, but we want to document whether that’s the case or not,” Hibbard said.

For growers in Missouri and adjoining states, extended diapause is a daunting discovery. Corn rootworm is the most damaging corn pest in North America. Before the adoption of Bt corn, the USDA estimates growers spent an estimated $200 million in control measures and suffered $800 million in lost yield. Until now, Missouri growers have seen fewer losses from rootworm because of the prevalence of rotational practices.

This summer’s sampling shows that extended-diapause rootworms have not yet reached an economically damaging threshold, Worthington said, but he and his Crop-Trak team remain vigilant and encourage growers to do the same.

“The good news is that it still looks like it’s not to the level where we have to change our practices, but it’s something we need to take seriously,” Worthington said. “If the extended-diapause population continues to increase, rootworms will have to become a focus of our integrated pest management.”

The June/July Today's Farmer

Written by webadmin on .


Portrait of perseverance (Cover story with Video)
The Corlett family has been dairy farming for 70 years and counting
by Kerri Lotven

Agriculture’s simple mission
Drive to Feed Kids campaign seeks to combat rural food insecurity’
By Steve Fairchild

Hydration innovation (Video)
How Miraco refreshed the livestock waterer industry
by Allison Jenkins

Bin trends
Whether on the farm or at the elevator, grain storage is getting larger and more high-tech
by Nancy Jorgensen        

Steps in the right direction
Agape Ranch helps troubled teens turn their lives around
By Allison Jenkins
Break the summer slump with native grasses
Establishing warm-season forage alternatives can benefit your herd
by Matt Hill
Shield cattle from heat stress
Improved nutrition can mitigate effects of high temperatures, humidity
by Dr. Jim White

Manage diseases with
multi-faceted approach
Proper stewardship is important to protect seed treatment effectiveness
by Jason Worthington

Persistent low prices mean dire days for dairy
by Allison Jenkins

Saluting stewardship
Missouri wants ‘fake’ meat clearly labeled
Missouri’s Fordyce to lead Farm Service Agency

MARKETS - as printed - click for Flipbook
Corn: Expect export demand to remain strong
Soybeans: Look for substantial price volatility this summer
Cattle: Herd growth continues to slow
Wheat: Crop concerns cause market uncertainty

RECIPES - as printed - clip for Flipbook
Blended bliss

BUY, sell, trade

MFA values good stewardship
By Ernie Verslues


Click the magazine cover to view this issue as printed in FlipBook form.

Portrait of perseverance

Written by Kerri Lotven on .

Every morning, dairy farmers Wesley Corlett and his son, Daniel, rise with the sun and with the same surety.

In the pale morning light, they walk to the milking parlor to complete their early morning ritual. They will spend three hours milking and then head to the fields only to come back again in the afternoon and repeat the cycle.

Generations of dairy farmers have done the same. Here on their farm in Willard, Mo., the Corletts have managed the pinnacles and pitfalls of the industry for close to 70 years. There’s no secret recipe to their longevity. Like most other dairy producers, they readily admit that capital is one of the biggest challenges, but they have persevered through the tough times by diversifying their operation, limiting debt and maintaining positivity.

“If you have your health and are able to get up every morning and go, you can overcome a lot, can’t you?” Wesley said.

His family acquired the original plot of land in the mid-1800s, but it wasn’t until the 1940s that Wesley’s grandfather, father and uncle began the dairy operation. Together, they formed the original partnership that Wesley and his children continue to operate today.

Wesley said he knew from a young age he wanted to be a dairyman.

“His family said he’d sit in the window of the old stanchion barn just watching them work,” his wife, Annette, said. “They said they couldn’t pull him away.”

And much like his father, Daniel knew he would become the fifth generation to make farming his career.

“I like working for myself,” he said. “I was raised here, and I think the farm is a great place to raise my kids.”

In addition to Daniel, Wesley and Annette have an older son, David, a daughter, Diane, and eight grandchildren. Daniel and his wife, Jennifer, bought into the partnership in 2015 when David had to withdraw from the daily operations due to a progressive multiple sclerosis diagnosis.

Together, Daniel and Wesley milk 80 cows twice a day—at 6 a.m. and 4 p.m.—the sunup to sundown schedule that’s well-known to dairy farmers.

“We’re out there every morning and afternoon,” Wesley said. “No exceptions for funerals, weddings, vacations, operations or anything like that.”

When Wesley had to undergo a total knee replacement two years ago, Daniel handled the milking operations during his father’s six-week recovery. And more recently, when Wesley and Annette went to visit his sister for a week, Daniel and Jennifer both stepped in with their three kids in tow—Harleigh, 4, Aurora (Rory), 15 months, and Weston, 3 months.

“Jennifer was here in the mornings while her mom watched the kids,” Daniel said. “Then in the evenings, we had the kids with us, and they just did their thing. We would bring Rory’s swing into the parlor, and she would swing with me while I milked. Harleigh helped, and Weston was just passed around.”

The Corletts milk a mix of Guernsey, Holsteins and a few Jersey cows and retain their heifers each year to build the herd.

“We used to milk around 100 but there were a few years when our numbers dropped due to milk prices, drought and other issues,” Daniel said. “We’d like to eventually get back to that number, but we’re not quite there yet.”

With 80 cows, they average 50 pounds of milk per day per cow, for a total of around 1.4 million pounds of milk each year. The addition of 20 cows would likely increase their average 3-hour milking time by 30 minutes for an extra 1,000 pounds per day. Their cows are fed a mixed feed ration in the parlor sourced from MFA affiliate Bolivar Farmers Exchange in addition to free-choice hay and silage.

“It’s not a traditional dry lot,” Wesley said, “but we feed them about everything they eat.”

The Corletts work with MFA Feed Area Sales Manager Jody Boles to test their forage and silage quality a few times each year.

“They are a good dairy family, and they’ve been customers for years,” Jody said. “No matter if it’s a good day or a bad day, Wesley always has a smile or is laughing at some point.”

Three years ago, the Corletts also began raising a beef herd to supplement their dairy.

“We just put it together from nothing,” Wesley said. “I think we started with six cows. Now we have close to 30.

Recently, the Corletts began leasing 190 acres to plant wheat and soybeans as well as corn to chop for silage.

“Now we do the dairy chores in the morning, go to the fields and then come back and do the chores,” Wesley said. “I’m sure other farmers are in the same situation. You stay late if you have to and just go until you can’t anymore.”

“Every day is a blur,” Daniel added. “We’ve diversified, and now we just work all the time.”

Though it has added more work to an already full plate, diversifying their operation has helped to compensate for declining milk prices. Last year was the first time they planted soybeans, and the crop did well, Wesley said.

“That really helped to offset some of milk price,” he said. “I wish I had all the numbers, but it just seems to me like milk prices never really have reached a new level. How long have you seen milk at the stores for $2.50-$3? But what has beef done? What has chicken done?”

He is right. The price of milk doesn’t follow the common trend of other household staples such as bread, eggs or meat. It’s more volatile, the jagged line graphs more closely resembling price trends for oil or gas. According to the USDA, the national average retail milk price hit its highest point in January 2008 at $3.87 per gallon. In January 2018, the average price was $2.96. Conversely, beef and chicken prices have steadily risen over the years.

“Most of the time it’s like a roller coaster,” Annette said. “It takes forever to get up to that good price, and then it just shoots back down.”

The Corletts know they’re in the commodity business and a world market. These days, milk is used for much more than making cheese or butter. It can be distilled into milk powder, whey proteins, condensed milk, fat solids and skim solids—each with its own uses. When milk prices hit the 2008 high, China was importing large supplies from the U.S. and other countries due to a melamine contamination scandal at a large Chinese factory that produced infant formula. The incident reportedly killed at least six children and caused illness in thousands more. At the time, however, feed and fuel prices were also higher domestically, cutting into farm profit margins.

In 2014, milk prices again climbed with export demand. Still, the downswings drive many out of business. Wesley and Daniel can name most of the dairies in Greene County now on their fingers. They can also list quite a few that are gone.

“I think it would be hard to get started in this industry as a young dairyman,” Wesley said. “Especially if you have started thinking the going is good, so you borrow money for equipment. It would be really tough if you owed on the land and the machinery.”

Though they have had some debt at times, the Corletts said they never make large purchases unless they have a really good year.

“Really, if we can’t afford it, we don’t buy it,” Annette said. “You have to have a little buffer, a little nest egg, or you’ll find yourself in trouble.”

Part of their perseverance has been managing that debt and carefully maintaining the farm infrastructure while staying in step with technology. In the milk house, part of the original rock foundation can still be seen. Wesley’s grandfather had a few cows he milked in the stanchion barn, in which Wesley’s father and uncle later built additions. They would also go on to build the milk house, parlor and silo.

“The buildings are outdated,” Wesley said. “But the milking equipment is modern, outside of automatic take-offs. We try to keep up as best we can.”

As for the future of the farm, Daniel plans to continue the family tradition.

“Jennifer and I have talked about a lot of different things we’d like to do, like selling items straight off the farm, but you really have to get a lot of things in order to do it right,” he said. “But we will always farm. I can’t really see myself doing anything else.”

And while Wesley, now 63, said he hopes he isn’t milking until he’s 80 like some of his neighbors, he also admitted, “If I’m able, that would be good. If you’re able to get up and work, that’s a great thing.

Steps in the right direction

Written by Allison Jenkins on .

When Glory began her first training class at Agape Boarding School Ranch, the 3-year-old mare was wild, nervous and afraid. She didn’t trust anyone. She refused to obey.

Her 17-year-old trainer, Hunter Scarbury of Mesa, Ariz., could relate. After all, that same type of behavior is what led him to this rigid residential facility for troubled boys in Stockton, Mo.

“Back home, I was skipping school, getting in trouble, and eventually my parents kicked me out,” Scarbury said. “I lived on the streets for a while, and then they decided to send me here to straighten out my life. It was rough for the first few months because I was fighting it, but now I love this place. It’s like a second home.”

The teen attributes much of his turnaround to Agape’s agricultural program, which allows a select number of boarding school residents to work on the ranch as part of their rehabilitation process. Scarbury is living proof that horses can help heal.

“I’d never worked with horses before I came here, and it was a little scary at first,” he said. “But once you show them that you’re in control, they’ll lend you the reins. I can understand how they feel, because I’ve been out of control myself. This class has shown me how I need to act for other people and how my behavior affects everyone around me. I feel like I’ve matured quite a bit.”

Home to about 100 teenage boys, Agape Boarding School was founded in 1990 by James and Kathy Clemensen in California and relocated to Missouri in 1995. “Agape” is the Greek word for “unconditional love.” At the Christian-based school, students adhere to a military-style structure under 24-hour supervision. They continue their academic studies during their stay, which ranges from 12 months to several years.

As they advance through the program, the residents rise in rank and gain privileges to participate in extra-curricular activities such as working on the ranch. Ranch manager Riley Olson, a Wyoming native, established the equine program six years ago with 14 of his own mares, geldings and stallions. The school’s stable has grown to more than 100 registered quarter horses that were either born on the farm or donated. He and his students also manage around 150 head of beef cattle on a neighboring farm.

“It was my dream to be a cowboy and train horses for a living, but I felt like God wanted me to do something greater,” Olson said. “I decided to go to Bible college in Indiana and went back to Wyoming to work for a little church there. Then I got the call from Mr. Clemensen to start a horse program here. My wife, Kyla, and I came down to visit and felt like it was custom built for us.”

Only Agape students who show good behavior, progress in their rehabilitation and keep up with their studies are considered for the ranch’s colt class, which currently has 14 participants. Enthusiasm for working with horses is essential. Experience is not.

“You should never put a green rider with a green horse and expect anything to go right, but by the grace of God, this program works here,” Olson said. “Most of the boys here have never been around horses, but everybody in this class wants to be here. Like a lot of young men, they find a natural affinity for horses—even boys who grew up in the city. They may not know much about farm life or taking care of animals, but they make a connection with them.”

Ian McCaghren of Somerville, Ala., is among the ranch hands who had no prior equine experience. The 17-year-old said his parents sent him to Agape two and a half years ago after he started causing trouble and running with the wrong crowd. The teen began working on the ranch about four months into his boarding school stay and discovered a natural talent for training horses. He hopes to turn that talent into a career.

“If I hadn’t come here, there’s no telling where I’d be. Probably in jail or something,” McCaghren said. “Being on the ranch has allowed me to learn a trade that otherwise I wouldn’t have known. I’ve just kept growing and learning all kinds of different things I could do. I’m planning to go to horse-shoeing school when I graduate next March and then do that for a living.”

MFA Feed Specialist Chad James said he’s seen firsthand the benefit of putting these troubled youth together with horses. James has volunteered with Agape Ranch for the past several years, helping the boys learn proper training techniques and consulting with Olson and other ranch employees on nutrition and animal health. Agape relies on the local MFA affiliate, Farmers Exchange in Stockton and Bolivar, for many of its farm supplies.

“I come and help out wherever they need me, and I get a lot of enjoyment out of being able to see the boys progress,” James said. “It gives them an opportunity to see what agriculture is all about, and the guys who run the ranch still believe a handshake is meaningful and that you take your hat off to a lady. They’re teaching the boys those types of traditional values, which are being lost in the world today. What they do here really fits well with what we do at MFA. That’s the kind of company MFA is.”

The students are involved with all aspects of the farm, from feeding and veterinary work to assisting with foaling and calving. In the colt class, the boys start working with the young horses when they’re weaned at about 7 or 8 months old. They learn how to halter-break them and teach them to lead, walk over tarps and pick up their feet.

The training process begins in earnest when the horses are about 2 years old.

“We take a long time training and start really slow, teaching the boys how to be around the horses and watching their responses before we ever saddle and ride them,” Olson explained. “Then, the boys start working their horses in the round pen. Eventually, we’ll go trail riding and gather cows on horseback. Every once in a while a boy may get bucked off, but it gives him an opportunity to learn how to dust himself off and get back on.”

As the young horses learn and grow, so do the young men.

“You can’t control anything until you can control yourself,” Olson said. “That’s why most of these boys are here. They couldn’t control themselves. They got in trouble. And horses make great tools for rehabilitation. When they help a young colt get over issues like being saddled, crossing a creek and other things that spook it, the boys are learning how to conquer fear and overcome obstacles in their lives.”

The most recent group of horses the young men have trained will be sold June 15-16 at the ranch’s inaugural “Ride Prosperously Production Sale.” (See accompanying story on page 22 for details). Each boy will ride his horse into the sale ring and have a chance to share his story with the buyers and spectators.

“We’ve sold some horses off the farm in the past, but we decided to have our own production sale to give the boys a sense of accomplishment,” Olson said. “It will allow them to see their work from start to finish. I believe it will be something they’ll remember for a lifetime.”

After working so closely with his mare, Glory, for the past few months, Scarbury said he expects the sale day to be bittersweet.

“I think I’ll feel a little sad to see her go, but if I can train her to be a good horse, hopefully she’ll find a good owner,” he said. “That will make me happy.”

Not all the stories have a happy ending, Olson admitted. He’s seen too many boys whose potential goes unrealized because they refuse to change or accept help. That’s the tough part of his job.

But there’s a lot of good, too.

“The greatest thing about working here is to see a boy come in with a hardened heart who wants nothing to do with authority, and then see him change and open himself up to instruction and direction,” Olson said. “Oftentimes, the turning point is when he starts working with his horse. It’s like something switches on inside them. It’s just incredible how powerful horses can be to a young man.”

Ranch hosts sale and horsemanship clinic

Agape Boarding School Ranch’s first-ever “Ride Prosperously Production Sale” will be held Friday and Saturday, June 15-16.

The name comes from the Bible verse, Psalms 45:4: “And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of truth and meekness and righteousness.”

“That’s what we want to teach the boys,” Ranch Manager Riley Olson said. “Many of them lack a desire for truth and righteousness, and we are definitely raising generations of boys who are very prideful. To get through life, you’ve got to get rid of the arrogance, be meek and honest and get your life right. And we want the people who buy the horses to ride prosperously wherever they go.”

The auction-style event will feature 17 quarter horses that are 3 and 4 years old, and all horses will sell that day. Proceeds will go toward ranch operations. Each participating student will receive a portion of the sale to help pay school tuition. The buyer of the high-selling horse will be given a handmade leather saddle crafted by Olson.

In addition to the sale, a free horsemanship clinic by renowned trainer Curt Pate will be held on Friday from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. and on Saturday from 10 a.m. to noon. The public is invited to attend.

The sale starts at 2 p.m. on Saturday, with the final horse preview at 1 p.m.

Concessions will be sold all day on Friday. A free cowboy breakfast begins at 9 a.m. on Saturday, and free brisket and pulled pork sandwiches will be served at noon. Door prizes will be given away throughout the sale.

For more information, contact Agape Ranch at 417-276-7215, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or online at www.facebook.com/AgapeHorse. The ranch is located at 12998 E. 1400 Road in Stockton, Mo.

Bin trends

Written by Nancy Jorgensen on .

Concrete elevators have been a mainstay of grain storage for MFA Incorporated and other commercial elevator operators for decades. But recently, both elevators and farmers have turned to metal storage bins in a big way.

“Farmers have been producing record corn and soybean crops, and that’s why we’re seeing a trend toward more and larger bins,” said Nathan Belstle, project engineer for MFA Incorporated who purchases bins for the company. “These days, the focus is on steel.”

MFA and its corporate-owned Agri Services Centers handled 75 million bushels in 2017, the second-largest volume in company history. It expects to handle 92 million bushels in 2018 in its 90 grain-handling locations. That doesn’t include grain stored at locally owned MFA affiliates and the hundreds of independent dealers that work with MFA.

While MFA hasn’t added new storage so far in 2018, Belstle estimates that the company installed 40 metal bins a year for the previous five years—in increasingly larger sizes.

“Twenty years ago, a lot of bins were 48 feet in diameter, 22 rings tall and held 100,000 bushels,” he said. “Over the last four years, we’ve seen more bins with 72 to 105 rings that hold 250,000 to 300,000 bushels. MFA owns some 90-foot diameter bins that hold 550,000 bushels. We choose the size based on the amount of real estate available at each location.”

Ed Zdrojewski, editor of Grain Journal, published by the Grain Elevator and Processing Society, sees those same bin trends.

“Steel is the biggest trend, and steel bins are getting larger,” he said. “Some commercial elevators are purchasing new 105-foot-diameter steel bins that store 800,000 bushels. But you won’t see anything that big on the farm—the largest would usually be about 60 feet in diameter and hold 100,000 bushels.”

Glenn Kaiser is one of the farmers contributing to that trend. He is completing a 13-year plan to improve grain storage capacity on the family’s row-crop farm in Carrollton, Mo. That plan began in 2005 when Kaiser purchased land in a centrally located site for the sole purpose of locating new bins. He worked with W.B. Young of Marshall, Mo., to develop a master storage plan, and the company installed GSI brand facilities and equipment incrementally over the years.

This year, the Kaisers added two 100,000-bushel metal bins and will soon install two more, giving them 600,000-bushel capacity for corn and soybeans.

“I didn’t realize that placing all this storage in one setting would be so nice,” Kaiser said. “We move grain more quickly during harvest and have more control over when we sell it. We try to wait until June or July when the price goes up. We’ve been able to sell corn for $4 a bushel in the last few years.”

The first bins Kaiser added were equipped with traditional augers, but in 2013, he built a new tower dryer system with three receiving legs. One leg is designed to move wet corn into a wet bin; when the grain dries, it moves through a dry leg to one of seven dry bins. If the grain arrives dry enough, Kaiser bypasses the wet leg and uses the main receiving leg.

“It was a really wet corn year in 2013, and it put the new system to the test,” Kaiser said. “This was not an off-the-shelf project. It was well engineered.”

Automation has decreased labor, increased efficiencies and improved safety when it comes to monitoring the grain, Kaiser added. He owns three semi trucks and hires two additional truck drivers during harvest. When a truck arrives at his on-farm storage site, a scale house measures its load. The truck dumps grain into a pit from its hopper bottom, and the scale house then measures its empty weight.

“The truck never has to move,” Kaiser said, “and that speeds up the process.”

When delivering grain, Kaiser uses two augers to load into the front and back of the truck at the same time. An employee monitors weight from a catwalk, making sure the load doesn’t exceed the legal limit.  

He used to keep a worker at the bins all the time to check grain conditions and switch fans on and off, but technology has made that role unnecessary. His bins are equipped with cables that measure moisture and temperature. He can activate fans manually, automatically or remotely to reduce moisture or temperature.

“Now I watch-dog moisture and temperature levels from my cell phone and use my phone to activate or shut down bin fans as needed,” Kaiser said. “This new system has been great.”

The high-tech monitoring system means no one needs to enter a bin to unplug blockages.

“That’s when entrapment accidents happen—when grain gets out of condition and you have to enter a full bin,” Kaiser said. “We stay out of the bins until they’re empty.”

In addition to automatic moisture and temperature control, the zero-entry power sweep is another technology that protects farm workers, Belstle said. In the past, someone had to enter the bin to unplug augers, but zero-entry sweeps eliminate that need.

“We no longer use conventional auger sweeps because zero-entry sweeps improved safety dramatically over the past 10 years,” Belstle said. “We’ve had luck with the paddle chain design. We’re adding zero-entry power sweeps to our older bins—they’re expensive but essential.”

Spreader arms are also a beneficial feature of modern-day grains bins. They operate by gravity, power-take-off or other energy sources to circulate the grain and achieve consistent quality. Fines often build up in the middle, preventing air from flowing evenly. Also, when sampling grain, operators usually pull from the center. When fines concentrate in the sample, it can lead to a lower price. MFA doesn’t used spreaders, but Belstle said it might be a good option for on-farm bins.

On-farm vs. elevator storage

With continued record carryover in grain stocks, don’t look for the trend toward adding metal bins to slow down, Belstle said. While he’s understandably biased in favor of commercial elevators, he admits that the industry needs all the storage it can get right now with growing farm sizes and increasing yields.

Belstle summarized these benefits of on-farm storage:

  • When you store your own grain, you may gain more control over when you can sell it, allowing you to optimize the price.
  • MFA continues to update grain facilities to speed up loading, but farmers with their own bins can avoid waiting in line at elevators during harvest.
  • You can avoid paying elevator storage fees. But keep in mind, there’s an up-front cost to purchasing bins, and you must also pay for energy to run fans.
  • You may also gain tax and depreciation advantages.

On the other hand, Belstle continued, storing grain at an elevator also has its advantages. First of all, adding on-farm bins can be expensive. W.B. Young’s most popular on-farm size stores more than 30,000 bushels of corn, and a standard model costs around $50,000 or about $1.50 per bushel, according to Manager Randy Sleeper.

“A smaller 10,000-bushel bin costs more per bushel to erect—about $2.50,” Sleeper said. “Automated technology can add as much as $12,000 to the price, and you must also pay an annual subscription.”
The cost of steel has gone up 15 to 20 percent since November, he added, as markets reacted to the threat of U.S. tariffs on steel.

Other benefits to elevator storage include:

  • Quality assurance — A commercial elevator takes on responsibility for moisture or insect damage to the stored grain. In May, because of the huge 2017 harvest, MFA continued to store grain on the ground in some locations, covering it with special tarping, Belstle said. “We work to get grain off the ground before warm weather can impact quality,” he explained, “but we guarantee that when you sell your grain, you’ll be covered for the same quality that you brought in.”
  • Liability — Storing grain at an elevator relieves farmers of safety and worker liability concerns. “There are more bin-related deaths on the farm than at commercial elevators,” Zdrojewski said. MFA elevator staff members are also trained and licensed to fumigate grain to control insects, a hazardous practice that is best left to professionals, Zdrojewski said.
  • Marketing — Every MFA location has a marketing expert to help you sell grain at the optimum price.

“Not every farmer has the time or the knowledge to manage grain storage,” Belstle says. “MFA elevators print out daily reports from different levels in every bin to measure things like moisture and temperature. When we see a hot spot, for example, fans automatically switch on.”

Zdrojewski shares Belstle’s preference for elevators.

“If you lose a tank of grain on the farm, that’s a lot of money,” he said. “Commercial elevators are better equipped to manage grain and maintain quality. A growing number of farmers use their own semi trucks to haul grain, and they can shop around to find buyers willing to pay top dollar—places like river facilities, ethanol plants and feed mills—so they may not need on-farm storage.”

What’s next for grain bins?

Expect new grain bin technology to continue to emerge, particularly in the area of safety, Zdrojewski said.

“GSI has been at farm shows demonstrating a new powered sweep, no-entry technology, but it has a ways to go before it’s on the market,” he said.

If you’re considering purchasing bins, W.B. Young’s Randy Sleeper suggests a way to save money. Traditionally, farmers wait until July or so to purchase, when they can estimate yield.

“Today, farmers are purchasing metal bins earlier,” Sleeper said. “When harvest ends in November, look for manufacturers to come out with incentives to buy early.”

For more information on bin safety, search online: “OSHA Fact Sheet: Worker Entry into Grain Storage Bins.”

What to look for when buying steel bins

Nathan Belstle considers many factors before purchasing steel bins for MFA Incorporated:

  • The gauge of steel. The heavier the steel, the sturdier the bin.
  • The grade of steel. Go for high tensile, he said.
  • The number and strength of steel rings. Rings are heaviest at the bottom of the bin and get thinner as they rise. Considering ring strength is important but can be complicated.
  • The roof’s load capacity. Belstle said he looks for bins that can take up to 100,000 pounds of weight so catwalks can be added to the roof rather than on the side.
  • How they’re galvanized. Manufacturers coat steel to prevent rust. The thicker the mil, the better the resistance.
  • How they’re stiffened. Belstle prefers bins with external supports that make them easier to clean out compared to those with internal channels. “Older bins sometimes crumpled from the weight of grain,” he said. “Bin manufacturers started adding internal supports, but grain, debris and moisture tend to build up in the channels, leading to rust. These days, externally stiffened bins are mandatory.”

Concrete elevators endure

Concrete elevators remain ubiquitous, especially along railroad tracks and at river-loading facilities. Most were built from the 1950s to the 1970s, said Nathan Belstle of MFA Incorporated.

“Concrete elevators fill faster and last longer, but metal bins last up to 50 years,” Belstle said. “Metal is more flexible and usually more cost-effective than concrete. They also go up faster.”

MFA Incorporated has focused on steel bins lately, with one notable exception. In 2017, MFA completed a large concrete storage elevator at its new rail facility in Hamilton, Mo.

“Even there,” Belstle explained, “we added three 30,000-bushel steel tanks to use for segregating grain that doesn’t meet our criteria, and several 5,000-bushel steel loading tanks for short-term storage.”

Concrete bins hold an advantage when it comes to strong wind, including tornadoes, but metal bins are tougher than they used to be.

“Out of hundreds of steel bins, storm damage affected just 10 of MFA’s bins in the last five years,” Belstle reported.


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