Trace minerals are necessary minerals

Written by Dr. Jim White on .

It won’t show itself in highly visible ways like boosting daily gain, but keeping your herd, especially your cows, satisfied with needed trace minerals is an important job.

Mineral supplementation strategies should be formed based on several factors including forage mineral bioavailability, trace mineral interactions, stage of production and even breed.

A primary trace mineral deficiency is a relatively rare event in profitable beef cattle production. This type of deficiency would result if free-choice cattle mineral intakes were regulated below recommended feeding rates, or not fed at all. A secondary trace mineral deficiency may result when a properly balanced free-choice mineral is fed, but dietary or water-sourced minerals are not considered. In that case, a mineral antagonism can create a trace mineral deficiency. This is why water samples and periodic analyses of forages should be conducted annually.

Trace elements to watch are zinc, copper and manganese.

Zinc is involved in enzyme formulations via metabolism of protein and carbohydrates. It is also required to maintain the immune system. Zinc is necessary at a very basic level for efficient cell growth, and zinc deficiency can impact productivity and health.

Copper is necessary for a cow’s enzyme systems. It affects iron metabolism, the central nervous and immune systems. In the immune system, copper affects energy production and antioxidant enzyme production. It also affects the growth of antibodies and lymphocytes. As a result, copper can affect reproductive success.

Manganese serves as a cofactor in several enzyme systems, controlling hormone levels and release for optimal reproduction. Manganese also is required in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that scavenges tissue-damaging free radicals.

Cows use the minerals they consume. Their tissue does not contain an unlimited supply. So effective mineral programs are important. They are especially important when you consider how a dam’s condition affects her offspring, something we often refer to as fetal programming.

During the last two months of gestation, a fetal calf grows at an exponential rate. During this time of rapid growth, it’s critical to have the building blocks of proper metabolism. Connective tissues and body organs require trace minerals for healthy development and must be retrieved from the dam’s blood supply. This is where bioavailable trace mineral supplementation can have its first economic impact on production.

For the beef producer, the critical period for supplying more bioavailable trace minerals to beef cows is from 60 days before calving through weaning. Not only does the cow benefit from better bioavailability, but calves consume free-choice mineral as well and added metabolic efficiency boosts the bottom line.

All MFA Gold Star free-choice minerals are formulated with “chelated” trace minerals. Amino acid chelates improve the bioavailability of trace minerals.

Research has shown feeding more bioavailable organic trace minerals has a favorable impact on bovine reproduction. These forms of minerals reduce the prevalence of early embryonic mortality (premature “death” of a fertilized embryo as a consequence of a failed implantation of the embryo within the endometrium of the uterus). These minerals also promote quicker uterine involution, fewer days to first estrus after calving and earlier conceptions. The uterine environment is healthier for improved reproductive efficiency when chelated minerals are fed.

When a beef herd starts on a chelated trace mineral program 60 days before calving, you tend to see heavier weaning weights in the first year. In addition, as more cows are settled earlier in the breeding season with less early embryonic mortality, weaning weights jump the second year as well.

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